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Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology publishes case reports and case series related to obstetrics, maternal-fetal medicine, gynecology, gynecologic oncology, uro-gynecology, reproductive medicine, infertility, and reproductive endocrinology.
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Fertility-Preserving Surgery in a Young Nulligravid Woman with Bilateral Coexistence of a Granulosa Cell Tumor with a Teratoma
Background. The coexistence of a granulosa cell tumor with a teratoma is extremely rare and impossible to diagnose preoperatively. For most patients with advanced age and stage, the standard treatment is hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, fertility-preserving surgery should be considered for young nulligravid women. Case. We present a case of a 24-year-old nulligravid female with bilateral adnexal masses, imaging findings of ovarian teratomas, and normal levels of tumor markers. A laparotomy revealed bilateral dermoid cysts, and solid tissue invaded most of the remaining ovarian parenchyma with no signs of malignancy in the uterus and peritoneum space. Consequently, a bilateral oophorectomy was performed to preserve her fertility. Histopathology examination showed mature cystic teratomas coexisting with granulosa cell tumors on both ovaries. Within six months, there were no signs of recurrence on ultrasonography and tumor makers. Combined oral contraceptive pills were prescribed as hormone replacement therapy. Conclusion. Fertility-preserving surgery can be performed in young women with an ovarian granulosa cell tumor coexisting with a teratoma. Long-term examination, hormone replacement therapy, and in vitro fertilization are required.
Ureter Injury in Laparoscopic Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy for Endometrial Cancer by the Transperitoneal Approach
The patient was 66 years old, had three pregnancies and two deliveries, and was menopausal at the age of 51. She had irregular bleeding and was found to have a chicken-egg-sized uterus and a thickened endometrium (23 mm). She underwent laparoscopic surgery for uterine endometrial cancer (endometrioid carcinoma G1, stage IB). Laparoscopic simple hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, para-aortic lymph node dissection, and partial omentectomy were performed using the transperitoneal approach (TPA). The patient was obese, with a height of 148 cm, a weight of 68 kg, and a body mass index of 31 kg/m2. She had a large amount of visceral fat, which made it difficult to expand the surgical field during para-aortic lymph node dissection. A laparoscopic fan retractor (EndoRetract II, Medtronic) was used to lift the intestinal tracts and expand the field of view. It broke the fat around the left kidney, and the exposed left ureter was heat-damaged using a vessel sealing device (LigaSure, Medtronic). Postoperatively, a left ureteral stent was placed, and continuous urine draining into the retroperitoneum was performed. To prevent injury to the left ureter, the left ovarian vein branching from the left renal vein should be exposed as a landmark before the left ureter running parallel to it is isolated. It is essential that the fat around the left kidney is not broken during this operation. The left iliopsoas muscle should be exposed, and using this as a base, the left ovarian vein, left ureter, and left perirenal fat should be compressed and moved to the left side using a fan retractor to ensure a safe operation.
The sFlt-1/PlGF Ratio Trend Is Useful in Predicting Preeclampsia Severity in Hyperreactio Luteinalis Complicated with Preeclampsia
Hyperreactio luteinalis (HL) is a rare condition that presents as bilateral ovarian enlargement during pregnancy. Typically, it is thought to be caused by increased production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with gestational trophoblastic diseases or multiple pregnancies. The prognosis is relatively good, with many cases resulting in term birth. However, some obstetric complications, such as preeclampsia (PE) and preterm births, have been reported. We present a serious case of HL with subsequent PE that resulted in preterm delivery at 31 weeks of gestation. The soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)/placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio was very high at the onset of PE at 24 weeks of gestation, followed by a modest decline, which then increased in proportion to the exacerbation of symptoms. Since HL cases have also been reported to be associated with PE, repeated measurement of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio proved useful for better pregnancy management.
Radiofrequency Ablation and Intrauterine Transfusion in a Delayed Diagnosed Acardiac Twin Pregnancy
Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence or acardiac twin is a rare and severe complication of monochorionic multiple pregnancies. Acardiac twin accounts for 10% of all TRAP sequences, which is the most morphologically developed acardius. We present an undiagnosed TRAP sequence case up to 24 weeks of gestation who underwent successful amnioreduction, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and intrauterine transfusion (IUT). During follow-up, hydrops of surviving co-twin disappeared, and fetal heart function improved. Finally, a healthy girl weighing 2400 g was born at 36 weeks of gestation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported acardiac twin pregnancy, which requires IUT, in addition to RFA, due to late diagnosis. Therefore, this case report presents successful management options for TRAP sequence cases diagnosed late in pregnancy.
Huge Leiomyomas Arising from Bilateral Uterine Remnants in a Mayer–Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome Patient with Coexisting Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: A Case Report and Literature Review
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is a rare congenital anomaly of the genital tract. Since the secretion of sex hormones from the ovaries is preserved, leiomyomas and adenomyomas, which are estrogen-dependent diseases, may develop from the uterine remnant. In contrast, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common dystrophy in adults, are considered to be at high risk for benign tumors of the female reproductive system, such as uterine leiomyomas and ovarian cysts. A rare case of huge leiomyomas arising from bilateral uterine remnants in a woman with MRKHS with coexisting DM1 is presented. Her chief complaint was abdominal distension. On pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), two solid pelvic masses showing low signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging were seen. Both the uterine corpus and cervix were unclear, but bilateral ovaries were observed normally on MRI. Two uterine leiomyoma-like masses connected by a band of fibrous tissue were found by laparotomy. As with the MRI findings, the uterine cervix and vagina could not be detected macroscopically. Normal bilateral adnexa and round ligaments were identified. All of her symptoms improved after hysterectomy.
Ureter Injury in Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy
Objective. To identify surgical manipulations that caused ureter injury during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and evaluate the surgical manipulations to identify ways to prevent such injury. Patients and Methods. This single-center, cross-sectional study included 1135 cases of TLH performed for benign diseases from January 2009 to December 2021. Seven cases (0.6%) that needed ureteral stent placement intra- or postoperatively for ureter injury were included. We identified the surgical manipulations that caused ureter injury from surgical videos. Results. Two cases had adhesions around the bladder pillar, and the ureter sustained a thermal injury during the cardinal ligament transection. One case had severe endometriosis, and the ureter was bluntly damaged when the adhesion was released. In one case, the ureter was thermally damaged during bipolar hemostasis for uterine artery bleeding. In two cases, the obliterated umbilical artery was mistaken for the ureter, and the real ureter was injured. In one case, ureteral peristalsis was inhibited by a pelvic abscess caused by postoperative infection. Conclusion. To prevent ureter injury during TLH, the ureter should be isolated in case of severe adhesion. Moreover, the following could be considered: (1) expand Okabayashi’s pararectal space lateral to the uterosacral ligament, (2) perform dissection sharply using a monopolar or scissors forceps when releasing adhesion, (3) clarify the anatomy around the ureter for cases needing hemostasis, (4) repeatedly confirm the ureter with its peristalsis even after its isolation, (5) for severe adhesion cases, reduce infection risk by drain placement and administering antibiotics, and (6) use a delineator cup.