Table 2: Causes of acute hepatic failure during pregnancy.

Causes of hepatic failure Pregnancy related Nonpregnancy relatedTesting

HELLP syndromexThrombocytes, liver enzymes, hemolysis parameters (LDH, haptoglobin)
Acute fatty liver of pregnancyxLong-chain fatty acids (LCHAD), acylcarnitine
InfectionsxSerological blood testing
Intoxications (drugs, medication)xUrine/blood testing (qualitative/quantitative drug proof)
Metabolic disorders (e.g., M. Wilson)xSpecial markers (e.g., ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-antitrypsin), biopsy
TumorsxImaging, biopsy, tumor markers (e.g., AFP)
Autoimmune disordersxAutoantibodies, biopsy