Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Presenting with Shoulder MassRead the full article
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine publishes case reports and case series related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer.
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Sistrunk Procedure on Malignant Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
A thyroglossal duct cyst is a lesion that occurs as a result from failure of the thyroglossal duct to obliterate during fetal development. Malignant progression is a rare event that might occur in less than 1% of all cases. Because of its rarity, there are conflicting opinions regarding the management of the case. In the present study, a 46-year-old male presented with a painless neck mass that had increased in size over the last 6 months. There was no difficulty in swallowing and breathing, change in voice, significant weight loss, or any signs of hyperthyroidism. Laboratory workup showed that results were within normal limits. Thyroid gland ultrasonography and cervical contrast CT scan revealed a complex cystic mass that pointed towards a thyroglossal duct cyst. We performed Sistrunk procedure. Postoperative pathology examination revealed microscopic appearance of the thyroglossal duct cyst with a classic follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Our latest follow-up showed no signs of tumor recurrence or any complications following surgery on locoregional status. As a fine needle aspiration biopsy cannot ensure a precise result in all of cases, it is essential to perform a solid physical examination and thorough supporting examination in deciding the precise management for the patient.
Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma Presenting with Unilateral Vision Loss
Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) is a manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in which malignant B-cell lymphocytes accumulate in the lymph nodes or bone marrow. In this report, we describe the medical course of a patient diagnosed with stage IV small cell lymphocytic lymphoma, who presented to the emergency room with acute neurologic manifestations of SLL.
Combined Cerebellar and Spinal Cord Deficits Caused by an Underlying Gynecologic Malignancy
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is an uncommon autoimmune disorder targeting antigens within the nervous system and is usually associated with an underlying malignancy. Neurologic symptoms frequently precede the cancer diagnosis, which is most often seen in women with breast or gynecologic tumors. Anti-Yo-related PCD is the most common PCD syndrome, and one of the best understood. Although cerebellar signs are characteristic of anti-Yo PCD, myelopathy is an unusual presentation of anti-Yo PCD based on published case series and reports. Unfortunately, the prognosis for anti-Yo PCD is often poor, and most patients become bedridden. We report a case highlighting a severe presentation of cerebellar degeneration along with an unusual finding of myelopathy in a patient with a newly diagnosed gynecologic cancer.
A Huge Pelvic-Abdominal Malignant GIST Tumour in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Case Report and Literature Review
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are rare tumours of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) accounting for 0.1%–3% of all gastrointestinal tumours. The most common location is the stomach (55%) followed by the small bowel (31.8%), colon (6%), other various locations (5.5%), and the oesophagus (0.7%). They may also occur in extraintestinal locations. The signs and symptoms of GIST depend on the tumour’s location and size. Gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most common symptoms. Other signs and symptoms include abdominal discomfort, pain or distention; intestinal obstruction, and weight loss. The association between the development of GISTs and neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) has been established. NF1-associated GISTs tend to have a distinct phenotype, and the absence of KIT/PDGRF mutations in turn has implications on further management when they do not respond well to imatinib treatment. Here, we present one of the largest GISTs reported in the literature with a total volume of and an overall weight of 7.3 kg, which developed in a 43-year-old female patient with NF1 and was resected on an emergency basis due to the rapid deterioration and development of abdominal compartment syndrome. Pathology assessment showed a malignant GIST composed of spindle cells with elongated nuclei with necrosis, marked pleomorphism and numerous giant cell. The mitotic count was >15/50 HPF, Ki 67 was 80%, and the lymphovascular invasion was clear. Immunohistochemistry investigations showed that Vimentin, CD117, and DOG1 were positive, while BCL-2 and CD99 were focal positives. Pan-CK, S-100, CD34, Desmin, SMA, and HMB-45 were negatives.
A Rare Case of Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumor in a 21-Year-Old Romanian Male
Extragonadal germ cell tumors are a rare entity that is more prevalent in infants and young children, with preference to midline structures. The category of intracranial germ cell tumors is divided into pure germ cell tumors (GCTs) versus nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs). They are usually present in the second decade of life with a male preponderance. We present here a rare case of intracranial NGGCT in a 21-year-old Romanian male, who presented with complaints of emesis, ataxic gait, and diplopia. A computed tomography scan of the head in the emergency department revealed a pineal/suprapineal mass along with obstructive hydrocephalus and dilated lateral and third ventricles without any bleeding. MRI of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine showed no evidence of leptomeningeal metastasis. The patient had elevated serum markers of beta-hCG and AFP, which pointed towards a diagnosis of nongerm cell tumor, as in pure GCTs, these markers are normal. To relieve the obstruction from the mass effect, the patient had an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (EVT). However, after the procedure, he developed central diabetes insipidus as a complication with a triphasic response. Biopsy of the mass revealed atypical cells with granular architecture and atypical glands with positive immune histological markers for NGGCT. These findings supported the diagnosis of mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac carcinoma and seminoma components. Patient’s transient central diabetes resolved with normalization in his urine output. He was eventually stabilized and returned to Romania for further management. In summary, intracranial germ cell tumors are rare brain tumors that should be distinguished based on histology and tumor markers as they will help in the guidance of therapy. An initial evaluation with neuroimaging, tumor markers, cytology from CSF, and biopsy is a must to distinguish further treatment and prognosis.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Malignancy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a disorder of coagulation which is commonly seen as a complication of infections, traumas, obstetric diseases, and cancers especially hematological and rarely solid cancers. DIC may rarely be the presenting feature of an undiagnosed malignancy. It may present in the form of different phenotypes which makes its diagnosis difficult and leads to high mortality. The treatment comprises supportive, symptomatic treatment and removal of the underlying source. Here, we present a patient with history of being on warfarin for atrial fibrillation and other comorbidities who presented with elevated INR of 6.3 and increasing dyspnea on exertion. Over the course of her stay, her platelet counts started dropping with a concurrent decrease in fibrinogen levels. She eventually developed pulmonary embolism, followed by stroke and limb ischemia, which was indicative of the thrombotic phenotype of DIC. Her pleural fluid analysis showed huge burden of malignant cells in glandular pattern suggestive of adenocarcinoma and was started on heparin drip. However, the patient had cardiac arrest and expired on the same day of diagnosis.