Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rare Presentation and an Effective Treatment with CrizotinibRead the full article
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine publishes case reports and case series related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer.
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Corneal Perforation during Combination Chemotherapy including Cetuximab in a Patient with a History of Herpetic Keratitis
Purpose. To report a case of corneal perforation, in a patient with a history of herpetic keratitis, during combination chemotherapy including cetuximab. Case. We report the case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with a hypopharyngeal carcinoma and received radiation therapy combined with cetuximab, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. He was referred to us because of ocular hyperemia and corneal perforation in his left eye. In spite of conservative therapy, his corneal perforation was exacerbated, with iris incarceration into the wound site and exposure to the surface of the cornea. He therefore discontinued treatment with the combination chemotherapy and underwent lamellar keratoplasty using a preserved donor cornea. After treatment with cetuximab resumed, there was no recurrence of the corneal perforation. Conclusion. We have presented the first case of cetuximab-related corneal perforation in a patient who had a history of recurrent herpetic keratitis. EGFR inhibitors, such as cetuximab, can induce corneal perforation in cases with a history of herpetic stromal keratitis.
Malignant Gastrointestinal Neuroectodermal Tumor (GNET) with Prolonged Disease-Free Survival after Platinum-Based Chemotherapy
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is a rare disease with a handful of cases described in literature. GNET has only become a well-known/widely accepted entity in the recent years, but it is still not listed in the database of rare diseases. Due to the rarity of disease, there are no guidelines on standard therapeutic approaches in the adjuvant or metastatic setting. Here, we describe a unique case of GNET with a 7-year disease-free survival following adjuvant cisplatin and etoposide chemotherapy. This is the longest disease-free survival that has ever been described in literature and may support using this combination in a larger cohort of patients in the context of a global clinical trial. We will also review the histopathologic features of GNET and potential therapeutic options in the metastatic setting.
Peripheral Medulloepithelioma: A Rare Entity to Know
According to the World Health Organization, medulloepithelioma belongs to the embryonal neoplasm entity. It is a very rare, highly malignant tumor typically affecting infants and young children. Usually, the tumor arises in the eye or in the central nervous system; a peripheral location has been rarely reported without an established treatment. The recognition and separation of this neoplasm from other differential tumors are mandatory for better understanding of its biology and determination of optimal treatment. This paper reports a case of an ectopic intrapelvic medulloepithelioma with liver metastasis in a 3-year-old girl.
Clinical Significance of Pain in Differential Diagnosis between Spinal Meningioma and Schwannoma
While common MRI characteristics for schwannomas exist, diagnosis by imaging alone remains challenging. Detailed analysis of symptoms reported by the patient is very important in the differential diagnosis between meningioma and schwannoma in cases where MRI images are not sufficient for determining the tumor type. The pain, its classification of the character, and the timing seem to be an important predictive symptom in the differential diagnosis of spinal schwannoma.
Response to Ipilimumab/Nivolumab Rechallenge and BRAF Inhibitor/MEK Inhibitor Rechallenge in a Patient with Advanced Metastatic Melanoma Previously Treated with BRAF Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy
Little is known about the optimal sequencing of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma. BRAF/MEK inhibition often has the benefit of rapid disease regression; however, resistance is frequently seen with long-term use. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors offers the potential for long-term response but displays a lower rate of objective response. The benefit of synergy between therapies is apparent; however, there is limited data regarding optimal sequencing in the treatment of advanced melanoma. We present the case of a 62-year-old gentleman with advanced BRAFV600-mutated melanoma who followed an unconventional treatment path. After progressing on single-agent vemurafenib, he had response to multiple modalities of immunotherapy before progression. After, he had a substantial response to multiple BRAF/MEK inhibitor rechallenges before developing resistance. The patient is now stable after a retrial of combination immunotherapy. Our case illustrates that with the right sequencing of therapy, meaningful clinical responses can be elicited with rechallenging of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma.
Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Gallbladder
Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the gallbladder is an extremely rare entity. Most reported cases were mistakenly diagnosed preoperatively as cholecystitis with or without cholelithiasis. We believe that our article demonstrates the 5th case of gallbladder LMS that was suspected preoperatively to be malignant rather than cholecystitis, which fortunately led to radical resection of the tumor instead of simple cholecystectomy. However, the definitive diagnosis relies exclusively on histological and immunohistochemical techniques. We present a case of a 62-year-old Caucasian female complaining of signs and symptoms suggestive for cholecystitis. On ultrasonography, the gallbladder appeared enlarged and filled with a necrotic mass; thus, the presence of adenocarcinoma was suspected. Multislice Computerized Tomography (MSCT) demonstrated no distant metastasis. An extensive radical cholecystectomy was performed, and histological techniques confirmed a leiomyosarcoma diagnosis. In addition, adjuvant chemotherapy of doxorubicin and ifosfamide was administrated. The patient was on follow-up for 2 years and is doing well till date. The discrimination of gallbladder sarcoma preoperatively remains a clinical and radiological challenge. Although radical resection of the tumor remains the mainstay of the treatment, we believe that adjuvant chemotherapy should be administrated in such cases. However, further studies are required in this field.