Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma Masquerading as CarcinomaRead the full article
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine publishes case reports and case series related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Uncommon Metastasis in the Orbit
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most common type of primary cancer of the liver and is associated with poor prognosis. It is the most common cause of death in cirrhotic patients and in different studies was shown as the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Each year, approximately half a million people are diagnosed with HCC. In recent decades, the prognosis of patients with HCC has improved because more cases are diagnosed and treated at early stages; high-risk patients (i.e., with chronic HBV or HCV infection) are followed more often for the possibility of HCC, and novel treatment options such as locoregional therapy are used with better overall results. The extrahepatic metastases represent a poor prognostic factor. The most common sites of metastasis in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma are the lung (44%), portal vein (35%), and portal lymph nodes (27%). Also, intra-abdominal lymph nodes and bones are common sites. Orbital metastases rarely occur, representing the 3-7% of orbital masses. These metastases are usually found in advanced tumor stages. The mechanism of metastasis to the orbit is difficult to determine. A hematogenous route, as for other primary neoplasms of the abdomen, may be suspected. Tumor cells may circulate through the vena cava, beyond the pulmonary filter to the heart, and finally be distributed to the orbital region through the arterial systemic circulation. We describe herein a case of an adult male with liver cirrhosis due to alcohol abuse who presented with concomitant diagnosis of HCC and orbit metastasis.
Objective Clinical and Radiological Response under Sunitinib in a Case of Thigh Hidradenocarcinoma
A 56-year-old male was treated by local surgery in 1968 and 2005 for a left thigh lesion. A 2nd local relapse occurred in 2015 and was treated by complete macroscopic surgery with histology concluding to a hidradenocarcinoma. A 3rd locoregional relapse occurred in October 2018, with the presence of inflammatory ulcerated lesions. A 2nd histology and immunohistochemistry exam showed a proliferation positive for CK, CK5, and p63 suggesting the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma. The patient was treated by 3 lines of chemotherapy, 1st by Adriamycin, 2nd by carboplatin-paclitaxel, and then 3rd by oral capecitabine, leading to a stable clinical disease but without a clinical benefit. A locoregional plus metastatic lung progression was observed in March 2019, with the presence of lung nodules and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, multiple skin left thigh and left inguinal ulcerated lesions. The patient received then in 4th line in April 2019 oral sunitinib at 50 mg daily, with 4 weeks therapy/2 weeks pause. Side effects were represented by mucositis, anorexia, weight loss, and fatigue. We observed since the 1st week of therapy a fast response, with a decrease of the ulcerated lesions, a skin loss, and deep hemorrhagic areas. CT-scan showed after 2 weeks of sunitinib an objective response on both locoregional and metastatic lesions.
Synchronous Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma and Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix Involving the Coronary Arteries Leading to Acute Myocardial Infarction
A 66-year-old woman presented to the hospital with a one-month history of shortness of breath, fatigue, and postmenopausal vaginal bleeding and a one-week history of chest pain. This case report discusses the rare synchronous occurrence of two different malignancies in the setting of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and the relation between these unfortunate events. Besides the case presented in this report, there have been only 13 reported cases of synchronous chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) associated with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. While it is well known that malignancy causes a hypercoagulable state, there are other mechanisms which may have contributed to the patient’s myocardial ischemia including external vascular compression, tumor lysis syndrome, and anemia. This case report discusses the rarity of synchronous malignancies but the importance of understanding and consideration of cardiac events in this population.
An Unusual Occurrence of Multiple Metachronous and Synchronous Primary Cancers in a Female Patient
Multiple primary cancers, although uncommon, have been increasing in incidence in recent years. This trend is likely due to advances in factors such as diagnostic imaging, life expectancy, and interventional modalities with associated adverse effects. The patient presented in this case report is a 59-year-old Caucasian female with an extensive medical history who developed multiple primary cancers of the breast, mouth, gastrointestinal system, and lung in the span of four years. We attempted to elucidate the possible etiologies and risk factors that may have contributed. Given the patient’s complex medical and social history, interventions, environmental, and genetic predispositions, it is impossible to pinpoint a single etiology. Rather, it is more likely that the interplay of multiple factors contributed to the findings of this case.
Ibrutinib-Induced Vasculitis in a Patient with Metastatic Colon Cancer Treated in Combination with Cetuximab
Combination therapy with ibrutinib and cetuximab is being studied in a phase 1b/2 trial in patients with advanced gastrointestinal and genitourinary malignancies. Rash is a common cutaneous adverse effect for both medications. Ibrutinib is a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor approved for the treatment of several hematologic malignancies. The rash can be asymptomatic, nonpalpable, mild skin eruption, or palpable purpuric rash. A rarer panniculitis form has also been reported. Cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor (EGFR) inhibitor, approved for treatment in head and neck and advanced gastrointestinal malignancies is also known to cause acneiform rash in majority of patients. The rash is due to inhibition of EGFR in the basal keratinocytes and hair follicles. In the case of ibrutinib, the off-target effects on EGFR, c-kit, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) are thought to be responsible for the cutaneous eruption of various forms of rash. The combination therapy with the BTK inhibitor and a direct EGFR inhibitor may potentiate the rash inducing effects of the drugs. Here, we describe a case of vasculitis in a patient with metastatic colon cancer who received both ibrutinib and cetuximab on a phase Ib/II clinical trial.
Neoadjuvant Radiation with Concurrent 5-FU Resulting in Complete Pathologic Response in Stage IIIB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Urethra
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urethra is a rare malignancy, comprising less than 1% of all malignancies. The annual age-adjusted incidence of urethral SCC is 4.3 per million in men and 1.5 per million in women. Due to the rarity of the disease, there are a limited number of prospective randomized controlled trials to evaluate the optimal management of locally advanced urethral SCC. Here, we present the case of a 47-year-old man with stage IIIB urethral squamous cell cancer that showed complete clinical and pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation with only 5-flurouracil after incomplete response to traditional chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP).