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Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 165670, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/165670
Case Report

Waldenström Macroglobulinemia in Hepatitis C: Case Report and Review of the Current Literature

1Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, 2301 Erwin Road, P.O. Box 3422, Durham, NC 27710, USA
3Internal Medicine Residency Office, Duke University Hospital, 2301 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27710, USA

Received 23 May 2014; Accepted 12 August 2014; Published 27 August 2014

Academic Editor: Cesar V. Reyes

Copyright © 2014 Ryan Nipp et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Recent literature has associated hepatitis C virus with the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hepatitis C virus infection appears to promote lymphoproliferation, providing a plausible mechanism for a causative association; however, despite prior reports of patients with comorbid hepatitis C infection and Waldenström macroglobulinemia, the literature is in disagreement regarding whether there exists an association between these two conditions. Case Presentation. This case report describes a 57-year-old African-American male with chronic hepatitis C infection and cryoglobulinemia who presented with several episodes of transient confusion and paralysis and was found to have symptomatic hyperviscosity. The recognition of his condition was facilitated by characteristic findings on ophthalmologic examination. He was subsequently diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia on bone marrow biopsy. Conclusions. An up to date, comprehensive review of the literature suggests an association between hepatitis C and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Data on optimal treatment of patients with comorbid hepatitis C infection and Waldenström macroglobulinemia is limited. We have provided a comprehensive review of previously explored treatment options to guide management of other similar patients. Our patient has since been treated with repeated plasmapheresis with a plan to pursue antiviral therapy.