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Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 436821, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/436821
Case Report

A Unique Case of Malignant Pleuropericardial Effusion: HHV-8-Unrelated PEL-Like Lymphoma—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

1Department of Internal Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10305, USA
2Department of Hematology-Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10305, USA
3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY 10305, USA

Received 15 December 2013; Accepted 18 January 2014; Published 4 March 2014

Academic Editors: C. Gennatas and J. M. Ribera

Copyright © 2014 Farhan Mohammad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) or body cavity lymphoma is a rare type of extra nodal lymphoma of B-cell origin that presents as lymphomatous effusion(s) without any nodal enlargement or tumor masses. It belongs to the group of AIDS related non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. First described in 1996 in HIV infected individuals who were coinfected with Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or HHV-8 virus, it was included as a separate entity in WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue in the year 2001. The definition included association with HHV-8 virus as a mandatory diagnostic criterion. However, cases were later reported where PEL-like disease process was diagnosed in HHV-8 negative patients. This was eventually recognized as a rare but distinct entity termed as “HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma”. Herein, we are reporting a case of an elderly patient who presented with a large pleuropericardial effusion and was eventually diagnosed with this entity. Till date, only around 50 cases of HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma have been reported and our case being EBV, HIV, and Hepatitis C negative makes it very unique and rare occurrence. We are also presenting a review of relevant literature focused mainly on comparing outcomes in patients treated with and without chemotherapy.