Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 135976, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/135976
Case Report

Neuroendocrine Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Arising in Long Standing History of Multiple Sclerosis

1Department of Medical Oncology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
3Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
4Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece

Received 11 December 2014; Accepted 16 March 2015

Academic Editor: Francesca Micci

Copyright © 2015 Stergios Boussios et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that targets myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is a well-recognised clinical disorder, accounting for 3–5% of all malignant epithelial tumors. CUP is clinically characterised as an aggressive disease with early dissemination. Studies of cancer risk in MS patients have shown inconsistent findings. An increased risk of malignancy in patients with MS has been suggested, but recently serious questions have been raised regarding this association. Use of disease-modifying therapies might contribute to an increased cancer risk in selected MS patients. The concurrence of MS and CUP is exceptionally rare. Here we describe the case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary diagnosed in a male patient with a nine-year history of MS. The discussion includes data from all available population-based register studies with estimates of certain malignancies in patients with MS.