Subepithelial Corneal Deposits Associated with ExemestaneRead the full article
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Periorbital Silicone Granulomatosis 30 Years after Acupuncture
Silicone-based compounds are commonly used in many medical applications, such as coatings for needles and syringes. Foreign body granulomas are a well-recognized complication of silicone exposure; however, they may be challenging to identify without a clear history. A 61-year-old female patient without prior history of periocular injections, filler, or surgery presented to our oculoplastic clinic with multiple periocular lesions. The patient subsequently underwent excisional biopsy of two prominent lesions, which were identified as granulomas on pathology. Further questioning revealed the cause to be facial acupuncture performed decades prior, and a subsequent targeted exam identified additional lesions at other needling sites. A third lesion was subsequently excised, and there was no recurrence at the last follow-up 3 months postsurgery. Acupuncture is an increasingly common but underrecognized source of silicone exposure and can present up to several decades after exposure as a chronic granulomatous response in a characteristic multifocal pattern.
Tube Length Adjustment and Tube Trimming Technique in Refractory Glaucoma
Secondary glaucoma may develop after vitreoretinal surgery as it is a known risk factor for its development. When the risk factors are more than one, for instance along with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), the secondary glaucoma may become recalcitrant and very difficult to manage. Surgical intervention is often warranted to control intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent progressive glaucomatous damage in patients with refractory glaucoma, and glaucoma drainage implant may be preferred as the primary choice. We describe a patient who develop secondary glaucoma after vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection due to unresolved vitreous hemorrhage in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and subsequent NVG. Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI) was carried out and placed in the superotemporal quadrant with longer anterior chamber tube placement to prevent escape of SO through the tube. Qualified success was achieved with additional one fixed-drug combination (FDC). However, 3 years later, the tube was blocked by the iris tissue at the inferior edge of the pupil. Tube trimming was performed efficiently using a simple technique. The distal end of the tube was pulled out of the anterior chamber through a paracentesis just next to the tube entrance and trimmed to the appropriate length. More than a year after the surgery, IOP was still well controlled with the same FDC. Unfortunately, the visual acuity could not be recovered due to advanced PDR.
The Use of Inner Retinectomy to Relieve Inner Retinal Foreshortening Causing Retinal Detachment in the Setting of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion
A 61-year-old Japanese woman presented with impairment of her left vision due to macular schisis secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Her left vision was 20/50, and schisis was observed inferotemporally. She underwent phacoemulsification and aspiration, implantation of the intraocular lens, and removal of the epiretinal membrane and internal limiting membrane. Her visual acuity stabilized ~20/50 for two and a half years after the initial surgery. However, she developed macula-involving retinal detachment, and her visual acuity declined to counting fingers. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy and removal of the residual vitreous cortex together with the inner retina within the area of vein occlusion. After the removal of silicone oil and the addition of an encircling buckle, the retina remained attached and visual acuity improved to 20/60 at one year after the final surgery. The combination of rhegmatogenous and tractional detachment in the area of schisis was suspected, and vitrectomy with inner retinectomy was effective.
Iris Vascular Malformation with 360-Degree Iridocorneal Angle Affectation
Vascular iris lesions are rare and can sometimes be associated to systemic vascular lesions. They usually cause spontaneous recurrent hyphema. The differential diagnosis should be considered primarily with iris rubeosis and with highly vascular tumors as iris melanoma. Generally, vascular lesions of hemangioma type are located in the iris without extension to iridocorneal angle. We present a case of a 77-year-old male with an iris vascular lesion suggestive of racemose hemangioma, who is asymptomatic, and with 360-degree iridocorneal angle affectation showing no lesions at any other location.
Angle Closure Glaucoma in Retinitis Pigmentosa
Background. Angle closure glaucoma (ACG) whether primary or secondary lens induced has rare occurrence in cases with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Method. Five patients with history of diminished vision, ocular pain, and nyctalopia were clinically evaluated. Four patients had unilateral presentations of circumciliary congestion, corneal edema, and high intraocular pressure (IOP), while one had bilateral presentation, respectively. Anterior chambers were shallow; fundoscopy revealed the features of RP and gonioscopy affirmed closed angles in all the cases. The management strategies were individualized based on the specific ocular condition. Result. The raised IOP were not well controlled with conventional medical treatment. Neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) was performed in two patients and in the fellow eye in other two patients as a prophylactic measure. Phacoemulsification surgery with implantation of intraocular lens (IOL) was performed in three patients, whereas phacoemulsification only without IOL and trabeculectomy performed in one patient. Among them, two patients had subluxated lens, where one was managed with capsular tension ring and the other was left aphakic, respectively. However, the vision was not improved significantly in these patients. Conclusion. RP may be associated with ACG in rare instances. In these patients, angle closure-related high IOP can have a detrimental effect on the pre-existing visual impairment. However, this can be prevented by thorough clinical examination and timely intervention in those susceptible eyes.
Corneal Opacity Induced by Antiglaucoma Agents Other Than Brimonidine Tartrate
The aim of this study is to report a patient with corneal opacity that developed after the use of topical antiglaucoma medications other than brimonidine tartrate (BT). An 85-year-old woman presented with corneal opacity and neovascularization in both eyes. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made 20 years previously, and antiglaucoma agents were prescribed (latanoprost, tafluprost, timolol maleate, travoprost, bimatoprost, ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate, and brinzolamide/timolol maleate) for both eyes. Ocular examination revealed semicircular fan-shaped corneal sterile infiltration with neovascularization. Anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed marked corneal opacity and thickened corneal stroma. The topical drugs were discontinued and replaced with 0.1% betamethasone eye drops. Two weeks after topical drugs were discontinued and replaced with betamethasone, the corneal sterile infiltration markedly improved, although the corneal opacity remained across the stromal layer. In addition, corneal opacity, intermixed with separate transparent sections, was observed as a striped shape. OCT showed an improvement of the thickened corneal stroma. Six weeks after the initial visit, the remaining corneal opacity could be seen as a mixture of opaque and nonopaque areas in stripes. The corneal stromal thickness decreased almost back to the normal range, while the area of the corneal opacity remained unchanged. In vivo laser confocal microscopy showed hyperreflective materials with needle-like structures in the corneal stroma. The corneal opacity showed several similarities to the previous reports of the cases treated with BT. Therefore, clinicians should be mindful of a possible development of corneal opacity in patients treated with antiglaucoma medications other than BT.