Infected Nonunion of the Distal Femur in the Elderly with Bone Loss: Case Report and Treatment OptionsRead the full article
Case Reports in Orthopedics publishes case reports and case series related to arthroplasty, foot and ankle surgery, hand surgery, joint replacement, limb reconstruction, pediatric orthopaedics, sports medicine, trauma etc.
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An Unusual Terrible Triad Variant Associated with an Essex-Lopresti Injury
Essex-Lopresti injuries and terrible triad injuries of the elbow are rare injuries that typically result from high-energy trauma such as falling from a height or a motor vehicle collision. However, the combination of an Essex-Lopresti injury and terrible triad injury is unique and poses a significant challenge for treatment as these injuries are independently associated with poor functional outcomes if they are not acutely diagnosed. We describe a case of a 19-year-old who presented with an unusual variant of a terrible triad injury associated with an Essex-Lopresti injury. The patient had a distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and elbow dislocation, a radial head and coronoid process fracture, and a distal radius fracture. Almost a reverse Essex-Lopresti, this injury was successfully managed with open reduction and repair of the distal radius, radial head, and damaged ligaments in the elbow, along with an internal joint stabilizer (IJS).
Synthetic Mesh Reconstruction of Chronic, Native Quadriceps Tendon Disruptions following Failed Primary Repair
Case. Two patients presented with chronic knee extensor mechanism disruption after failed primary repairs. Both patients had minimal ambulatory knee function prior to surgical intervention and were treated with a synthetic mesh reconstruction of their extensor mechanism. Our technique has been modified from previously described techniques used in revision knee arthroplasty. At the one-year follow-up, both patients had improvement in their active range of motion and had returned to their previous activity. Conclusion. Synthetic mesh reconstruction of chronic extensor mechanism disruption is a viable technique that can be utilized as salvage for the persistently dysfunctional native knee.
Recurrence of Primary Synovial Chondromatosis (Reichel’s Syndrome) in the Ankle Joint following Surgical Excision
Primary synovial chondromatosis, or Reichel’s syndrome, is a rare benign tumour arising from the synovial lining of a joint. We present the case of a 25-year-old male with Reichel’s syndrome of the ankle, with subsequent recurrence following open retrieval of loose bodies. The initial presentation was of lateral malleolus discomfort which limited moderately strenuous exercise. Clinical examination showed a mild effusion and pain on extremes of movement. Imaging confirmed the presence of multiple loose bodies within the anterior and anterolateral recesses of the ankle. Open removal of 27 loose bodies from the joint was performed, with good postoperative recovery. He represented with pain 9 months later, with imaging of the ankle showing reaccumulation of loose bodies to a lesser extent. A trial of conservative management was opted for. Reichel’s syndrome confined to the ankle is an exceedingly rare diagnosis, with few cases reported in the literature. This case saw the recurrence of the disease in a short time period despite successful surgery in the first instance. Management options to treat recurrence include repeat retrieval of foreign bodies, synovectomy, radiotherapy, or arthrodesis. While the prognosis is favourable, a low risk of malignant potential warrants adequate patient follow-up.
Rapid Destructive Arthropathy of the Knee in Parkinson’s Disease with Pisa Syndrome: A Case of Knee-Spine Syndrome
The changes occurring in knee osteoarthritis often cause alterations in the spinal loading condition, which further lead to degenerative changes. This close relationship of the knee and spine has been reported as knee-spine syndrome. A 60-year-old woman with Parkinson’s disease (PD; Hoehn-Yahr stage IV) had severe knee pain with moderate lateral osteoarthritis of the knee (Kellgren-Lawrence classification grade II). Conservative therapy had no effect at all, and the knee developed destructive osteoarthritis rapidly without any traumatic episodes. The radiographic findings progressed to Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV within a month. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed partial depression of the joint surface, including shredded ossicles and substantial amounts of synovial fluid. The imaging findings were considered to be caused by a subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF). Total knee arthroplasty was performed using a semiconstrained prosthesis. The alignment of her lower extremity improved, and the patient could walk without knee pain. The patient had Pisa syndrome, a lateral flexion of the trunk, which is a postural deformity of the trunk secondary to long-standing PD. The postural deformity in PD is not based on spinal deformity itself but on the loss of postural reflexes and the imbalance of muscle tonus. Her left knee pain appeared 1 month after L1-L4 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) as the Pisa syndrome to her left side worsened. The more the trunk tilts to the lateral side, the center of the gravity axis will shift and pass through more lateral points of the knee and result in higher knee load. The stress concentration from the spine to the lateral joint of the knee caused lateral knee osteoarthritis, namely, knee-spine syndrome. When patients undergo correction surgery for adult spinal disorder with impairment of postural reflexes, they need to be followed up carefully regarding not only the spinal alignment but also the lower extremities.
Total Hip Arthroplasty Concomitant with Patellofemoral Arthroplasty and Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for a Patient with Patellar Dislocation Combined with Hip Dysplasia: A Case Report of a Successful Outcome at 5-Year Follow-Up
Background. Posttraumatic patellar dislocation is rare, and consistent surgical strategy therefore has not been defined due to multifactorial factor. In this case study, we treated a case of a patellar dislocation with hip osteoarthritis and increased femoral anteversion by performing a two-staged surgery. In the first stage, total hip arthroplasty was performed, and in the second stage, simultaneous patellofemoral arthroplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using semitendinosus tendon autograft were performed. Case Report. A 56-year-old female patient who previously had right hip osteoarthritis complained of right knee pain after a fall. Radiographic examination showed lateral dislocation of the patella with osteoarthritic (OA) change in the patellofemoral joint and an excessive femoral anteversion with OA change on the right hip joint. Total hip arthroplasty was performed firstly to decrease femoral anteversion. Then, simultaneous patellofemoral arthroplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction was performed for residual patellar dislocation and patellofemoral OA without tibiofemoral joint OA. At the time of the 5-year follow-up after surgery, the patient was able to walk with a wheelbarrow without any complications. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patellar dislocation with an increased femoral anteversion and patellofemoral OA treated by a combination of total hip arthroplasty, patellofemoral arthroplasty, and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. The clinical outcome improved at 5 years after these surgeries. Therefore, these surgical options can be considered to be useful.
Fabella Syndrome and Common Peroneal Neuropathy following Total Knee Arthroplasty
Case. A 62-year-old man presented with persistent lateral knee pain 15 months following an uncomplicated total knee arthroplasty. There was a tendinous snapping structure over the lateral aspect of the knee in deep flexion with positive Tinel’s sign over the fibular head. The patient underwent an uncomplicated flabella excision. The patient was cleared to return to work and full duty at two months postoperatively. Conclusion. Flabella syndrome is a rare but increasingly common mechanism of persistent lateral knee pain following total knee arthroplasty. Surgeons should be aware of this etiology of persistent lateral knee pain and offer treatment modalities to address this pathology.