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Case Reports in Pediatrics
Volume 2015, Article ID 487491, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/487491
Case Report

Cardiac Tamponade Associated with the Presentation of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in a 2-Year-Old Child

1Department of Pediatrics, University General Hospital of Alicante, C/Pintor Baeza 12, 03010 Alicante, Spain
2Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University General Hospital of Alicante, C/Pintor Baeza 12, 03010 Alicante, Spain
3Department of Dermatology, University General Hospital of Alicante, C/Pintor Baeza 12, 03010 Alicante, Spain
4Department of Pathological Anatomy, University General Hospital of Alicante, C/Pintor Baeza 12, 03010 Alicante, Spain

Received 3 June 2015; Accepted 24 August 2015

Academic Editor: Denis A. Cozzi

Copyright © 2015 Gema Mira-Perceval Juan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare entity in pediatric patients. We present an unusual case of pericardial involvement, quite uncommon as extranodal presentation of this type of disorder, that provoked a life-risk situation requiring an urgent pericardiocentesis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with pericardial involvement without an associated cardiac mass secondary to anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric age. We report the case of a 21-month-old Caucasian male infant with cardiac tamponade associated with the presentation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Initially, the child presented with 24-day prolonged fever syndrome, cutaneous lesions associated with hepatomegaly, inguinal adenopathies, and pneumonia. After a 21-day asymptomatic period, polypnea and tachycardia were detected in a clinical check-up. Chest X-ray revealed a remarkable increase of the cardiothoracic index. The anaplastic large cell lymphoma has a high incidence of extranodal involvement but myocardial or pericardial involvements are rare. For this reason, we recommend a close monitoring of patients with a differential diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.