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Case Reports in Pediatrics
Volume 2016, Article ID 9676234, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9676234
Case Report

Case Report of a Child after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Acute Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis as a Cause for Respiratory Failure

1Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, UMass Memorial Children’s Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 North Lake Avenue, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
2Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Enhancement, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
5Department of Pathology, Midland Memorial Hospital, Midland, TX 79701, USA
6Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA

Received 31 July 2016; Accepted 16 October 2016

Academic Editor: Nina L. Shapiro

Copyright © 2016 Stefanie Gauguet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rapid respiratory failure due to invasive mycosis of the airways is an uncommon presentation of Aspergillus infection, even in immunocompromised patients, and very few pediatric cases have been reported. Patients with Aspergillus tracheobronchitis present with nonspecific symptoms, and radiologic studies are often noninformative, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Prompt initiation of adequate antifungal therapies is of utmost importance to improve outcome. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with chronic myelogenous leukemia who developed respiratory distress 41 days after hematopoietic cell transplantation and rapidly deteriorated despite multiple interventions and treatment modalities.