Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Pediatrics
Volume 2017, Article ID 6863938, 4 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6863938
Case Report

Seronegative Myasthenia Gravis, as a Rare Autoimmune Condition in Turner Syndrome

Infant and Children’s Hospital of Brooklyn, Maimonides Medical Center, 977 48th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11219, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Roja Motaghedi; gro.demsedinomiam@idehgatomr

Received 22 July 2017; Accepted 22 October 2017; Published 14 November 2017

Academic Editor: Piero Pavone

Copyright © 2017 Rimah Sharief et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Ferguson-Smith, “Karyotype-phenotype correlations in gonadal dysgenesis and their bearing on the pathogenesis of malformations,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 142–155, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. B. Lippe, “Primary ovarian failure,” Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, vol. 2, pp. 325–365, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. J. Wolff, D. L. van Dyke, and C. M. Powell, “Laboratory guideline for Turner syndrome,” Genetics in Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 52–55, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. Haltrich, H. Pikó, H. Pamjav et al., “Complex X chromosome rearrangement associated with multiorgan autoimmunity,” Molecular Cytogenetics, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 51, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. B. Hook and D. Warburton, “The distribution of chromosomal genotypes associated with Turner’s syndrome: livebirth prevalence rates and evidence for diminished fetal mortality and severity in genotypes associated with structural X abnormalities or mosaicism,” Human Genetics, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 24–27, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. Larizza, V. Calcaterra, and M. Martinetti, “Autoimmune stigmata in Turner syndrome: when lacks an X chromosome,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Grossi, A. Crinò, R. Luciano, A. Lombardo, M. Cappa, and A. Fierabracci, “Endocrine autoimmunity in Turner syndrome,” Italian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 79, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. T. Hamza, N. A. Raof, and K. O. Abdallah, “Prevalence of multiple forms of autoimmunity in Egyptian patients with Turner syndrome: relation to karyotype,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 26, no. 5-6, pp. 545–550, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. K. Bakalov, L. Gutin, C. M. Cheng et al., “Autoimmune disorders in women with turner syndrome and women with karyotypically normal primary ovarian insufficiency,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 315–321, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Elsheikh, J. A. Wass, and G. S. Conway, “Autoimmune thyroid syndrome in women with Turner’s syndrome-the association with karyotype,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 223–226, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Valenzise, T. Aversa, A. Corrias et al., “Epidemiology, presentation and long-term evolution of Graves’ disease in children, adolescents and young adults with Turner syndrome,” Hormone Research in Paediatrics, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 245–250, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. H. Mortensen, L. Cleemann, B. E. Hjerrild et al., “Increased prevalence of autoimmunity in Turner syndrome-influence of age,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 205–210, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. Bianchi, A. Lleo, F. Bernuzzi, L. Caliari, D. S. Smyk, and P. Invernizzi, “The X-factor in primary biliary cirrhosis: monosomy X and xenobiotics,” Autoimmunity Highlights, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 127–132, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Invernizzi, M. Miozzo, C. Selmi et al., “X chromosome monosomy: a common mechanism for autoimmune diseases,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 575–578, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. A. J. Pollock, T. S. Seibert, C. Salvatori, P. Caturegli, and D. B. Allen, “Pituitary antibodies in an adolescent with secondary adrenal insufficiency and Turner syndrome,” Hormone Research in Paediatrics, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 123–129, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. T. Jөrgensen, K. Rostgaard, I. Bache et al., “Autoimmune diseases in women with Turner’s syndrome,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 658–666, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Chen, W. H. Hoffman, C. H. Chang, Z. Hart, and J. Kaplan, “Lymphocytic thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis and Turner syndrome,” Birth Defects Original Article Series, vol. 14, no. 6A, pp. 137–147, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  18. C. A. Bondy, “Care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: a guideline of the Turner Syndrome Study Group,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 10–25, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Mitoma, K. Adhikari, D. Aeschlimann et al., “Consensus paper: neuroimmune mechanisms of cerebellar ataxias,” Cerebellum, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 213–232, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. J. Kaminski, “Seronegative myasthenia gravis—a vanishing disorder?” JAMA Neurology, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 1055-1056, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Cortés-Vicente, E. Gallardo, M. Ángeles Martínez et al., “Clinical characteristics of patients with double-seronegative myasthenia gravis and antibodies to Cortactin,” JAMA Neurology, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 1099–1104, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. Higuchi, J. Hamuro, M. Motomura, and Y. Yamanashi, “Autoantibodies to low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 4 in myasthenia gravis,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 418–422, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus