Case Reports in Pediatrics / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Case Series

Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Paradoxical Vocal Cord Movement in Children during Sleep Endoscopy: Case Series

Table 1

DISE findings for each case.

Case 1Case 2Case 3

Nasal airway
 Bilateral nasal airwayAirway narrowed <2 mm at anterior inferior turbinateAirway narrowed <2 mm at anterior inferior turbinateAirway narrowed <2 mm at anterior inferior turbinate
 SeptumMidlineMidlineMidline

Retropalatal airway
 Adenoid>75% choanae obstructed>75% choanae obstructed<25% choanae obstructed
 Soft palateNo movement in respiratory cycle or obstructionPartially closes airway in anterior-posterior directionNo movement in respiratory cycle or obstruction
 Tonsils/lateral pharyngeal wallsAbsent, lateral pharyngeal walls medialize during respiration<25% collapse, no obstruction of airway<25% collapse without obstruction of airway

Retropalatal airway
 Retrolingual airway patencyPatentNarrowed, yet patentPatent
 Tongue baseWell positioned, wide open retro-lingual airway, no movement during respirationPushes epiglottis posteriorlyPatent vallecula
 EpiglottisVertical; true vocal cords easily visualized2-point contact on posterior pharyngeal wall, airway is narrowed, yet patentVertical
 Lingual tonsilNormal sizePartially fills valleculaNormal size

Endolarynx
 Arytenoid and postarytenoid mucosaNo edema, well positioned, no collapseVertical without collapseVertical without collapse
 Collapse of laryngeal mucosa obstructing endolarynxNo obstructionNo obstructionNo obstruction
 Vocal cordsBilateral paradoxical vocal cord motion notedBilateral paradoxical vocal cord motion notedBilateral paradoxical vocal cord motion noted
 Aryepiglottic foldsTrue and false vocal cords easily visualizedTrue and false vocal cords easily visualizedTrue and false vocal cords easily visualized

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