Suicide Attempt as the Presenting Symptom in a Patient with COVID-19: A Case Report from the United StatesRead the full article
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Bipolar Disorder as Comorbidity with Sjögren’s Syndrome: What Can We Do?
Neuropsychiatric manifestations in Sjögren’s syndrome are common and can occur not only during its course, but also at the onset of the disease. Depression and anxiety were the most frequently described symptoms. However, the association with bipolar disorder seems to be rare and not well documented. This case report presents a patient with bipolar disorder as comorbidity with Sjögren’s syndrome, suggesting that bipolar disorder could be associated with this autoimmune disease, which could lead to delaying diagnosis and treatment. A better analysis of the clinical background should be done by psychiatrists so to help early diagnosis and adapting prescription. Corticosteroids indicated in Sjögren’s syndrome should be prescribed with caution in bipolar disorder.
Expanding our Understanding of Atypical Antipsychotics: Acute Urinary Retention Secondary to Olanzapine
Antipsychotics are considered the most efficacious drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. While clinicians monitor for the onset of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs), many do not consider the antimuscarinic and histaminergic side effects that can occur with second generation antipsychotics. We present the case of a 62-year-old male who presented with acute urinary retention that was found to be due to the recent initiation of olanzapine. Gradual cessation of the medication and follow-up with urology revealed resolution of his symptoms. With the increasing demand for psychiatric care but limited psychiatric resources, more and more primary care physicians find themselves dealing with the complex challenges of mental illness and managing antipsychotic medications. As a result, coordinating care among multiple specialties and understanding the full profile of side effects that are associated with psychiatric medications can yield quicker diagnoses and improve patient care.
Bilateral Basal Ganglion Hemorrhage after Severe Olanzapine Intoxication
Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic drug which is generally considered safe with well therapeutic antipsychotic effects. We describe a patient suffering from bilateral intracerebral hemorrhage after severe olanzapine intoxication without underlying thrombocytopenia, arterial hypertension, or vascular malformation as cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. This raises the possibility of a direct side effect of high-dose olanzapine intake. So far, intracranial hemorrhage after olanzapine intoxication in such constellation has not been reported before. Given the high number of its prescription rates, our finding of intracranial hemorrhage after olanzapine intoxication is of high clinical relevance.
Levetiracetam Induced Behavioral Abnormalities in a Patient with Seizure Disorder: A Diagnostic Challenge
Levetiracetam is a second-generation antiepileptic drug that is chemically unrelated to other antiepileptic drugs. Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum antiseizure medication that is approved as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in children and adults with epilepsy. The mechanism by which Levetiracetam induces behavioral changes remains unknown. Its proposed mechanism of action involves binding to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) and this leads to neuronal inhibition. Though, the drug has a convenient dosing regimen and is relatively well tolerated, neuropsychiatric side effects can emerge beyond the initial titration period and may be the most common reason for drug discontinuation. Levetiracetam has been reported to cause varying degrees of psychiatric adverse effects including behavioral disturbance such as agitation, hostility and psychosis, and mood symptoms and suicidality. It has been shown to induce psychiatric side effects in 13.3% of adults, with only 0.7% presenting with severe symptoms such as depression, agitation, or hostility. The prevalence rate of development of psychosis in these patients is estimated to be about 1.4%. A review of literature has demonstrated a relative correlation between Levetiracetam use and the development of neurobehavioral symptoms which is increased in predisposed individuals. This research describes the case of a 28-year-old woman with seizure disorder and a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder who developed aggressive behavior, paranoia, and severe hostility following administration of Levetiracetam 750 mg orally twice daily. She developed acute behavioral symptoms which were reversed with cessation of Levetiracetam. This report emphasizes the need for developing an appropriately high index of suspicion in promoting surveillance and prompt identification of behavioral adverse effects associated with Levetiracetam especially in high-risk patient population.
A Case of Kratom Overdose in a Pediatric Patient
Kratom is a synthetic opioid that is federally unregulated and thus available for purchase through online retail and smoke shops in most states. Due to its availability, there is concern for misuse in the pediatric population. There is existing literature describing toxicity of kratom in adults; yet, to the best of our knowledge, there are no cases describing kratom toxicity in the pediatric population. Thus, we present the case of kratom overdose in a pediatric patient.
Coexistence of Primary and Secondary Delusional Parasitosis
Objective. Delusional parasitosis (DP) is a difficult-to-treat condition. It is prevalent in all cultures, societies, and countries. Previous case reports of DP have been published; however, the patient presented in this report is unique because of the co-occurrence of both primary and secondary types of DP. We aim to explore the two subtypes of DP. Conclusions. We discuss DP from a nosological perspective and also highlight the various theories at play in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary DP. The different subtypes of DP should be taken into consideration as they also have a bearing on the management.