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Case Reports in Psychiatry publishes case reports and case series in all areas of psychiatry.
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Spontaneous Bladder Rupture in a Catatonic Schizophrenia Patient
Catatonia is a psychiatric emergency in schizophrenia that often leads to excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Urinary retention in catatonia is often underestimated but has potentially detrimental consequences. Herein, we present the case of a woman in her 40s with schizophrenia treated for catatonia during a relapse. When treated as an inpatient, the patient suddenly complained of severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a spontaneous rupture of the posterior wall of the bladder, requiring emergency repair surgery in the urology department. The patient was readmitted to our hospital following surgery and ultimately discharged 1 month later. Bladder rupture is life-threatening, and delayed diagnosis and treatment can be fatal. This case report serves as a warning that psychiatrists should not overlook urinary retention in patients with catatonia and should consider bladder rupture in the differential diagnosis when these patients have abdominal pain.
Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Associated with an Eating Disorder and PTSD Are Responsive to Cognitive Processing Therapy
Objective. Eating disorders (EDs) are often associated with prior histories of trauma, subsequent PTSD and related psychiatric comorbidities. There is a paucity of information about their relationship to somatic symptom disorders, specifically psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a type of functional neurological symptom disorder or conversion disorder. Methods. We report a case of a 39-year-old bisexual female with bulimia nervosa (BN), PTSD, recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), cannabis use disorder, and PNES who responded to integrated trauma-focused treatment during residential ED treatment using cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Symptoms of ED, PTSD, major depression, and state-trait anxiety were measured using validated assessment instruments. Results. During the course of CPT treatment, the patient’s total scores on the PTSD Symptom Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) went from 59 to 26, which is below the diagnostic threshold for PTSD. In addition, she demonstrated improvements in the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) Global Severity score, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) total score, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) total score, the Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, and the Eating Disorder Quality of Life (EDQOL) total score. Furthermore, her PNES also abated, and she remained seizure free for ∼1 year following discharge with the exception of one short seizure, per report of the patient. Conclusion. The use of CPT as part of an integrated trauma-informed treatment approach during residential ED treatment was successful in a woman with PNES, BN, PTSD, MDD, and cannabis use disorder.
Delirious Mania in an Elderly, Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment
Delirious mania is an acute neurobehavioral syndrome which can have the features of mania, delirium, psychosis and catatonia. There are no diagnostic and treatment guidelines of delirious mania which can lead to delayed treatment, increasing morbidity and mortality. The primary goal of this report is to raise awareness among healthcare professionals and improve patient outcomes for this potentially life-threatening condition. In this case report, we present an octogenarian female, a case of bipolar disorder, current episode manic, who had impaired orientation, delusion of persecution, and altered sleep–wake cycle. She was treated with a combination of mood stabilizer and antipsychotic and discharged after 24 days of admission.
A Pediatric Patient with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Comorbid Depression and Substance Abuse
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), depression, and substance abuse problems share similar symptomatology and have significant interplay. An underlying diagnosis of OSA can often be overlooked in patients with significant psychiatric illness and polysubstance use. Pediatric OSA is often associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and frequently requires surgical intervention for resolution of symptoms. Untreated OSA can worsen mental status and encourage polysubstance abuse as a form of self-medication. Proper identification and management of OSA plays an important role in treating psychiatric conditions. We report a 16-year-old with major depressive disorder (MDD), suicide attempts, polysubstance use disorder, and severe OSA admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility. History included sleep and mood disturbances started at age 12. Patient presented with apnea–hypopnea index greater than 50 and started on bilevel-positive airway pressure (BiPAP) prior to admission. Management of OSA led to significant improvement of MDD, insomnia, and polysubstance abuse. OSA can often be overlooked in patients with MDD or substance abuse. Among adolescent patients with poorly managed psychiatric conditions, significant sleep disturbances, and polysubstance abuse, providers should maintain a high degree of suspicion for OSA, as its proper management will aid in the management of the other conditions.
Progressive Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Following Recurrent COVID-19 Infections in a Previously Healthy Adolescent
This is the almost 2-year-long course of a 16-year-old male without significant psychiatry history who abruptly developed symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and psychosis following a confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. His symptoms worsened following a confirmed reinfection with COVID-19. He responded poorly to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines. This case highlights an emerging phenomenon of post-COVID-19 neuropsychiatric sequelae and presents a complicated diagnostic and treatment challenge. The differential for this patient was explored and outlined in detail, and the medical workup recommendations for new-onset mental status changes were reviewed as they pertain to the patient’s assessment and treatment course. While there are several case reports of adolescents with abrupt-onset OCD and psychosis symptoms following COVID-19 infections, none of these reports include worsening of symptoms following reinfection, and few reports follow patients beyond initial hospitalization and treatment.
Alcohol Withdrawal Presenting with Cut Throat Injury during COVID-19 Lockdown: Case Reports from Nepal
Background. The relationship between alcohol dependence and suicidal tendency is well recognized. Self-harm by cut throat is an uncommon but is potentially life-threatening when attempted. We present a description and discussion of a series of three cases of alcohol dependence syndrome who presented with self-inflicted cut throat wounds during the lockdown period from 24th March to 7th July 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic at the largest tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Case description. During the three and a half months of COVID-19 lockdown, we had three cases of alcohol dependence syndrome presenting to emergency services with a self-inflicted cut throat injury. Two cases were diagnosed as having alcohol withdrawal delirium and one case as alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (alcoholic hallucinosis) as per the international classification of mental and behavioral disorders diagnostic criteria for research. All three cases were alcohol dependent for more than a decade, but with no prior self-harm attempts. Necessary surgical interventions were done by the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, and in liaison with the Department of Psychiatry, appropriate psychiatric management was done. All three cases had uneventful outcomes in regard to wound care and mental disorder. Conclusion. Suicidal precautions should be taken in alcohol dependence during phases of consumption and abstinence. Screening for alcohol dependence and withdrawal should be a standard process in all self-harm cases that present to the emergency department during a crisis.