Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Psychiatry
Volume 2015, Article ID 242364, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/242364
Case Report

Top-Down Computerized Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study of an Individual with Impairment in Verbal Fluency

1École de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6
2Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
3Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Québec, Québec, QC, Canada G1J 2G3
4Département de Psychiatrie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6

Received 18 January 2015; Accepted 29 March 2015

Academic Editor: Toshiya Inada

Copyright © 2015 Marjolaine Masson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. W. Heinrichs and K. K. Zakzanis, “Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence,” Neuropsychology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 426–445, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Schaefer, E. Giangrande, D. R. Weinberger, and D. Dickinson, “The global cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: consistent over decades and around the world,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 42–50, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Dickinson, M. E. Ramsey, and J. M. Gold, “Overlooking the obvious: a meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 532–542, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. W. Palmer, S. E. Dawes, and R. K. Heaton, “What do we know about neuropsychological aspects of schizophrenia?” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 365–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Gold, “Is cognitive impairment in schizophrenia ready for diagnostic prime time?” World Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 32–33, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. M. Wilk, J. M. Gold, K. Humber, F. Dickerson, W. S. Fenton, and R. W. Buchanan, “Brief cognitive assessment in schizophrenia: Normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 70, no. 2-3, pp. 175–186, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. F. Green, R. S. Kern, and R. K. Heaton, “Longitudinal studies of cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: Implications for MATRICS,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 41–51, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. H. Nuechterlein, K. L. Subotnik, M. F. Green et al., “Neurocognitive predictors of work outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, supplement 2, pp. S33–S40, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. R. Bowie, C. Depp, J. A. McGrath et al., “Prediction of real-world functional disability in chronic mental disorders: a comparison of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 167, no. 9, pp. 1116–1124, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. F. Green, R. S. Kern, D. L. Braff, and J. Mintz, “Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the ‘right stuff’?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 119–136, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. D. Lezak, Neuropsychological Assessment, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1995.
  12. E. M. Joyce, S. L. Collinson, and P. Crichton, “Verbal fluency in schizophrenia: relationship with executive function, semantic memory and clinical alogia,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. E. Bokat and T. E. Goldberg, “Letter and category fluency in schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Wykes, V. Huddy, C. Cellard, S. R. McGurk, and P. Czobor, “A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 472–485, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. R. McGurk, E. W. Twamley, D. I. Sitzer, G. J. McHugo, and K. T. Mueser, “A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, no. 12, pp. 1791–1802, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. N. Levaux, F. Larøi, M. Malmedier, I. Offerlin-Meyer, J. Danion, and M. Van der Linden, “Rehabilitation of executive functions in a real-life setting: goal management training applied to a person with schizophreni,” Case Reports in Psychiatry, vol. 2012, Article ID 503023, 15 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. Barlati, G. Deste, L. de Peri, C. Ariu, and A. Vita, “Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: current status and future perspective,” Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, vol. 2013, Article ID 156084, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Medalia and J. Choi, “Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia,” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 353–364, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Wykes, C. Reeder, J. Corner, C. Williams, and B. Everitt, “The effects of neurocognitive remediation on executive processing in patients with schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 291–307, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Medalia and A. M. Saperstein, “Does cognitive remediation for schizophrenia improve functional outcomes?” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. S. Bellack, K. T. Mueser, S. Gingerich, and J. Agresta, Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia: A Step-by-Step Guide, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2004.
  22. C. Reeder and T. Wykes, Computerised Interactive Remediation of Cognition—Interactive Training for Schizophrenia (CIRCUITS), Kings College, London, UK, 2010.
  23. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2000.
  24. T. Wykes and C. Reeder, Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Schizophrenia: Theory and Practice, Routledge, 2005.
  25. R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, “Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions,” Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 54–67, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Choi, T. Mogami, and A. Medalia, “Intrinsic motivation inventory: an adapted measure for schizophrenia research,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 966–976, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Reeder, V. Harris, A. Pickles, A. Patel, M. Cella, and T. Wykes, “Does change in cognitive function predict change in costs of care for people with a schizophrenia diagnosis following cognitive remediation therapy?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1472–1481, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. C. J. Press, R. J. Drake, and N. Husain, “South Asians’ attitudes towards cognitive remediation after first episodes of psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 117, no. 2-3, p. 512, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. N. S. Jacobson and P. Truax, “Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 12–19, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Marsden, B. Eastwood, C. Wright, C. Bradbury, J. Knight, and P. Hammond, “How best to measure change in evaluations of treatment for substance use disorder,” Addiction, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 294–302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. K. Heaton, N. Temkin, S. Dikmen et al., “Detecting change: a comparison of three neuropsychological methods, using normal and clinical samples,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 75–91, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Simonsen, K. Sundet, A. Vaskinn et al., “Neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders depends on history of psychosis rather than diagnostic group,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 73–83, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Bayard, D. Capdevielle, J.-P. Boulenger, and S. Raffard, “Dissociating self-reported cognitive complaint from clinical insight in schizophrenia,” European Psychiatry, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 251–258, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. H. Strauss, E. M. Sherman, and O. Spreen, A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2006.
  35. T. S. Surti, S. Corbera, M. D. Bell, and B. E. Wexler, “Successful computer-based visual training specifically predicts visual memory enhancement over verbal memory improvement in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 132, no. 2-3, pp. 131–134, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Lecardeur, S. Meunier-Cussac, and S. Dollfus, “Cognitive deficits in first episode psychosis patients and people at risk for psychosis: from diagnosis to treatment,” Encephale, vol. 39, supplement 1, pp. S64–S71, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Rodewald, D. V. Holt, M. Rentrop et al., “Predictors for improvement of problem-solving during cognitive remediation for patients with schizophrenia,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 455–460, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. Grynszpan, S. Perbal, A. Pelissolo et al., “Efficacy and specificity of computer-assisted cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a meta-analytical study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 163–173, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. X. Seron, “L'évaluation de l'efficacité des traitements,” in Traité de Neuropsychologie Clinique, X. Seron and M. van der Linden, Eds., vol. 2, pp. 39–62, Solal, Marseille, France, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  40. P. Vianin, S. Urben, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, E. Fornari, and L. Jaugey, “Increased activation in Broca's area after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 221, no. 3, pp. 204–209, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. Pillet, Y. Morvan, A. Todd et al., “Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) benefits more to patients with schizophrenia with low initial memory performances,” Disability and Rehabilitation, pp. 1–8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. M. Perdices and R. L. Tate, “Single-subject designs as a tool for evidence-based clinical practice: are they unrecognised and undervalued?” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 904–927, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Wechsler, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 3rd edition, 2005.
  44. D. Delis, J. Kramer, E. Kaplan, and B. Ober, “California verbal learning test manual,” USA Patent, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1987.
  45. J. Meyers and K. Meyers, Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial (RCFT), Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1995.
  46. K. Conners, “Continuous Performance Test II,” Psychological Assessment Resources, 1999.
  47. D. C. Delis, E. Kaplan, and J. H. Kramer, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), Psychological Corporation, 2001.
  48. D. Wechsler, WMS-III Manual, The Psychological Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  49. R. K. Heaton, G. J. Chelune, J. L. Talley, G. G. Kay, and G. Curtiss, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Manual Revised and Expanded, Research Edition (WCST-CV:4) 128 Cards, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1993.
  50. W. Culbertson and E. Zillmer, The Tower of London DX (TOLDX) Manual, Multi-Health Systems, North Tonawanda, NY, USA, 2001.
  51. S. R. Kay, L. A. Opler, and J.-P. Lindenmayer, “The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 7, pp. 59–65, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.