Combining Minimally Invasive Techniques in Managing a Frail Patient with Postpneumonectomy Bronchopleural FistulaRead the full article
Case Reports in Pulmonology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of pulmonology, prevention, diagnosis and management of pulmonary and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
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Croup Is One of the Clinical Manifestations of Novel Coronavirus in Children
The manifestations of novel coronavirus are diverse and can manifest through respiratory, gastrointestinal, and even nervous symptoms. Respiratory involvement is usually an upper tract infection or pneumonia but can also present as other forms of pulmonary disorders. A 3-year-old boy presented with cough, hoarseness, and stridor. He was treated with dexamethasone and nebulized adrenaline and a clinical diagnosis of croup was established. After treatment, his symptoms improved for a short time, but suddenly cough exacerbated and was accompanied by respiratory failure and seizures. He was then intubated and mechanically ventilated. Because of the coronavirus epidemic, Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay was taken from the pharyngeal secretions and was positive. The child was isolated. Due to excessive respiratory secretions and worsening of the general condition, bronchoscopy was performed depicting an image compatible with bacterial tracheitis. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, antivirals, and supportive care. Finally, after 4 weeks of treatment, the child was discharged in good general condition. Croup is one of the respiratory symptoms of novel coronavirus and can be a risk factor for bacterial tracheitis. Therefore, the presence of clinical manifestations of croup indicates the need for coronavirus PCR testing.
Asymptomatic Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia with Extensive HRCT Changes Preceding Sjogren’s Syndrome
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare condition, commonly associated with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS). We report a 53-year-old woman with an incidental finding of an abnormal chest radiograph. LIP was diagnosed based on high-resolution computed tomography and lung biopsy, but treatment was not initiated. Six years later, she developed cough and dyspnoea, associated with dry eyes, dry mouth, and arthralgia. While being investigated for the respiratory symptoms, she developed cutaneous vasculitis and was treated with 1 mg/kg prednisolone, which resulted in the improvement of her respiratory symptoms. Physical examination revealed fine bibasal crepitations, active vasculitic skin lesions, and a positive Schirmer’s test. Investigations revealed a restrictive pattern in the pulmonary function test, stable LIP pattern in HRCT, and positive anti-Ro antibodies. She was treated with prednisolone and azathioprine for 18 months, and within this time, she was hospitalised for flare of LIP, as well as respiratory tract infection on three occasions. During the third flare, when she also developed cutaneous vasculitis, she agreed for prednisolone but refused other second-line agents. To date, she remained well with the maintenance of prednisolone 2.5 mg monotherapy for more than one year. The lessons from this case are (i) patients with LIP can be asymptomatic, (ii) LIP can precede symptoms of SS, and (iii) treatment decision for asymptomatic patients with abnormal imaging or patients with mild severity should be weighed between the risk of immunosuppression and risk of active disease.
Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting as a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule on a Lung Cancer Screening CT
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare inflammatory condition that mostly affects lungs in smokers. On imaging, it usually presents as multiple, upper lobe predominant, solid, and cavitary nodules, but presentation as solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is rare. We describe a case of SPN seen on low-dose lung cancer screening CT (LDCT) that was FDG avid on PET/CT. Given concern for malignancy, lobectomy was planned if intraoperative frozen section was consistent with malignancy. Lobectomy was performed based on frozen section; however, on formal pathology review, the nodule was ultimately found to be PLCH. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of PLCH as a solitary nodule. Furthermore, it helps demonstrate how rare etiologies (like PLCH) may be more frequently encountered and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for solitary lung nodules, especially in the era of lung cancer screening.
Interstitial Emphysema as a Rare Radiographic Presentation of Bronchial Dehiscence after Lung Transplant
Airway complications after lung transplantation are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Bronchial dehiscence presents within a month of lung transplantation and is typically diagnosed radiographically as a sentinel gas pocket at the anastomotic site and confirmed with bronchoscopy. A 66-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who underwent a right lung transplantation 4 weeks prior developed chest pain with palpable crepitus over his right chest wall. A chest X-ray revealed subcutaneous emphysema and a small right-sided pneumothorax. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax without contrast revealed a gas pocket at the anastomotic site in the mediastinum as well as interstitial emphysema around the proximal bronchi of the right lung that had worsened when compared to CT from 11 days prior. A review of prior CT demonstrated interstitial emphysema without evidence of a sentinel gas pocket. These findings suggest that interstitial emphysema was the initial radiographic manifestation of the bronchial anastomotic site dehiscence. Interstitial emphysema is typically self-limiting, but severe cases can lead to major complications. Interstitial emphysema outside of the immediate postoperative period should be recognized as a possible early radiographic sign of bronchial dehiscence in lung transplant patients with vigilant monitoring of potential complications and strong consideration for early bronchoscopic investigation.
Streptococcus pneumoniae Coinfection in COVID-19: A Series of Three Cases
Bacterial coinfections are not uncommon with respiratory viral pathogens. These coinfections can add to significant mortality and morbidity. We are currently dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has affected over 15 million people globally with over half a million deaths. Previous respiratory viral pandemics have taught us that bacterial coinfections can lead to higher mortality and morbidity. However, there is limited literature on the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and associated coinfections, which reported infection rates varying between 1% and 8% based on various cross-sectional studies. In one meta-analysis of coinfections in COVID-19, rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfections have been negligible when compared to previous influenza pandemics. Current literature does not favor the use of empiric, broad-spectrum antibiotics in confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. We present three cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections complicated by Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection. These cases demonstrate the importance of concomitant testing for common pathogens despite the need for antimicrobial stewardship.
Covered Stent of the Left Common Carotid and Subclavian Arteries Assist the Invasive Tumor Resection
Background. Some recent reports have described the usefulness of thoracic aortic stent grafts to facilitate en bloc resection of tumors invading the aortic wall. We report on malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor resection in the left superior mediastinum of a 16-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1. The pathological margin was positive at the time of the first tumor resection, and radiation therapy was added to the same site. After that, a local recurrence occurred. The tumor was in wide contact with the left common carotid and subclavian arteries and was suspected of infiltration. After stent graft placement of these arteries to avoid fatal bleeding and cerebral ischemia by clamping these arteries and bypass procedure, we successfully resected the tumor without any complications. Conclusions. Here, we report the usefulness of the prior covered stent placement to aortic branch vessels for the resection of invasive tumor.