Asymptomatic Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia with Extensive HRCT Changes Preceding Sjogren’s SyndromeRead the full article
Case Reports in Pulmonology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of pulmonology, prevention, diagnosis and management of pulmonary and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
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Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting as a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule on a Lung Cancer Screening CT
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare inflammatory condition that mostly affects lungs in smokers. On imaging, it usually presents as multiple, upper lobe predominant, solid, and cavitary nodules, but presentation as solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is rare. We describe a case of SPN seen on low-dose lung cancer screening CT (LDCT) that was FDG avid on PET/CT. Given concern for malignancy, lobectomy was planned if intraoperative frozen section was consistent with malignancy. Lobectomy was performed based on frozen section; however, on formal pathology review, the nodule was ultimately found to be PLCH. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of PLCH as a solitary nodule. Furthermore, it helps demonstrate how rare etiologies (like PLCH) may be more frequently encountered and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for solitary lung nodules, especially in the era of lung cancer screening.
Interstitial Emphysema as a Rare Radiographic Presentation of Bronchial Dehiscence after Lung Transplant
Airway complications after lung transplantation are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Bronchial dehiscence presents within a month of lung transplantation and is typically diagnosed radiographically as a sentinel gas pocket at the anastomotic site and confirmed with bronchoscopy. A 66-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who underwent a right lung transplantation 4 weeks prior developed chest pain with palpable crepitus over his right chest wall. A chest X-ray revealed subcutaneous emphysema and a small right-sided pneumothorax. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax without contrast revealed a gas pocket at the anastomotic site in the mediastinum as well as interstitial emphysema around the proximal bronchi of the right lung that had worsened when compared to CT from 11 days prior. A review of prior CT demonstrated interstitial emphysema without evidence of a sentinel gas pocket. These findings suggest that interstitial emphysema was the initial radiographic manifestation of the bronchial anastomotic site dehiscence. Interstitial emphysema is typically self-limiting, but severe cases can lead to major complications. Interstitial emphysema outside of the immediate postoperative period should be recognized as a possible early radiographic sign of bronchial dehiscence in lung transplant patients with vigilant monitoring of potential complications and strong consideration for early bronchoscopic investigation.
Streptococcus pneumoniae Coinfection in COVID-19: A Series of Three Cases
Bacterial coinfections are not uncommon with respiratory viral pathogens. These coinfections can add to significant mortality and morbidity. We are currently dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has affected over 15 million people globally with over half a million deaths. Previous respiratory viral pandemics have taught us that bacterial coinfections can lead to higher mortality and morbidity. However, there is limited literature on the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and associated coinfections, which reported infection rates varying between 1% and 8% based on various cross-sectional studies. In one meta-analysis of coinfections in COVID-19, rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfections have been negligible when compared to previous influenza pandemics. Current literature does not favor the use of empiric, broad-spectrum antibiotics in confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. We present three cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections complicated by Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection. These cases demonstrate the importance of concomitant testing for common pathogens despite the need for antimicrobial stewardship.
Covered Stent of the Left Common Carotid and Subclavian Arteries Assist the Invasive Tumor Resection
Background. Some recent reports have described the usefulness of thoracic aortic stent grafts to facilitate en bloc resection of tumors invading the aortic wall. We report on malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor resection in the left superior mediastinum of a 16-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1. The pathological margin was positive at the time of the first tumor resection, and radiation therapy was added to the same site. After that, a local recurrence occurred. The tumor was in wide contact with the left common carotid and subclavian arteries and was suspected of infiltration. After stent graft placement of these arteries to avoid fatal bleeding and cerebral ischemia by clamping these arteries and bypass procedure, we successfully resected the tumor without any complications. Conclusions. Here, we report the usefulness of the prior covered stent placement to aortic branch vessels for the resection of invasive tumor.
Recurrent Pneumothorax with CPAP Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Pulmonary barotrauma such as pneumothorax (PTX) is a known complication of invasive mechanical ventilation. However, it is uncommonly reported with the use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) therapy. We present a case of a 66-year-old female who presented with chronic dyspnea on exertion secondary to right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. The patient also underwent a home sleep study which suggested obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for which she was initiated on CPAP. She then underwent surgical repair of her right diaphragmatic hernia. The patient developed pneumothorax three times over the course of the following several months, once on the right side and twice on the left side. The patient’s incidences of PTX had a temporal association with the CPAP initiation. Her CPAP therapy was discontinued permanently after the third occurrence of PTX. With this case report, we highlight the risk of barotrauma with the use of CPAP for OSA. There are very few reported cases of PTX in association with NPPV therapy for OSA. The lung-protective ventilation strategies and limiting the positive airway pressures can help reduce the risk of pulmonary barotrauma with CPAP.
The First Case of L. pseudomesenteroides Pulmonary Infection and Literature Review
L. pseudomesenteroides is a very rare bacterium that infects human beings, and it has been used as an industrial fermentation bacterium. At present, only a few cases have been reported about this bacterium infecting the human body, but most reports are mainly about sepsis. We will report on a woman with lymphoma who was successfully diagnosed by the use of transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB) with L. pseudomesenteroides pulmonary infection.