Successful Use of Hyperbaric Oxygen as Adjunctive Therapy for a Nonhealing Venous Ulcer in a Patient with Systemic Sclerosis and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Case Report and Review of the LiteratureRead the full article
Case Reports in Pulmonology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of pulmonology, prevention, diagnosis and management of pulmonary and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
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Successful Use of Hyperbaric Oxygen as Adjunctive Therapy for a Nonhealing Venous Ulcer in a Patient with Systemic Sclerosis and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Skin ulcers are a common complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that can significantly impact the quality of life. There have been recent reports on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2T) in the management of nonhealing systemic sclerosis skin ulcers. The effect of HBO2T on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), another common and potentially life-threatening complication of SSc, is unclear with literature on the subject lacking. We present the case of a 65-year-old female with limited SSc complicated by severe PAH and a nonhealing left lower extremity venous ulcer. HBO2T was successfully used as an adjunct in her management resulting in complete resolution of the venous ulcer and improved quality of life without any adverse effects on her pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Spontaneous Chylothorax following Septic Pulmonary Embolization
Chylothorax is the occurrence of chyle (lymph) in the pleural cavity secondary to damage of the thoracic duct. It is a rare form of pleural effusion which appears as a milky white turbid fluid. Malignancy is the leading cause of nontraumatic chylothorax while inadvertent surgical injury to the thoracic duct is the major cause of traumatic chylothorax. We report a case of spontaneous left-side chylothorax following septic pulmonary embolization (SPE) with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This is a rare case of a nonmalignant, nontraumatic, and nontuberculous spontaneous chylothorax which was conservatively treated with fibrinolysis and diet modification.
A Case Series of Vaping-Induced Lung Injury in a Community Hospital Setting
Acute and subacute injury to the lung parenchyma can be caused by multiple products. Over the past few years, vaping (also known as E-cigarettes) has become a popular trend and has been considered “safer” alternative to smoking cigarettes, especially among young adults. The use of E-cigarettes has rapidly increased, and according to the most recent report by CDC released at the end of December 2019, 2,506 cases and more than 54 associated deaths due to vaping/E-cigarette-associated lung injury were reported. Though vitamin E acetate and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been found in most of the bronchoalveolar lavage samples, there are still small numbers of cases that have not reported to using THC-containing compounds. Research looking into other possible constituents in E-cigarettes that can account for the etiology of disease and effects of vaping as it relates to pulmonary physiology still remains limited and uncertain. We hereby present a case series of 5 patients who were admitted primarily for respiratory symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and fevers and were diagnosed with vaping-induced pulmonary injury.
Follicular Bronchiolitis: Two Cases with Varying Clinical and Radiological Presentation
Follicular bronchiolitis (FB) is a rare bronchiolar disorder associated with hyperplasia of the bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). It is characterized by the development of lymphoid follicles with germinal centers in the walls of small airways. It falls under the category of lymphoproliferative pulmonary diseases (LPDs) and commonly occurs in relation to connective tissue disease, immunodeficiency, infections, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and inflammatory airway diseases. Computerized tomography (CT) findings include centrilobular nodules with patchy ground glass infiltrate, tree-in-bud findings, and air trapping. It can very rarely present as diffuse cystic lung disease. We present two cases of FB. The first case is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and asthma with diffuse cystic changes on the CT. The second case is associated with reactive airway disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with the classic centrilobular nodules and ground glass opacities on the CT.
Vaping Is Not Safe: A Case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia following Cannabis Vapor Inhalation
There is a well-established association between inhalational exposures and acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). The most reported exposure is cigarette smoking. Here, we present a case of progressive shortness of breath and nonproductive cough in a college student with no significant medical history, approximately 10 days after inhaling cannabis aerosols on two separate occasions. He was started on empiric antibiotics and bronchodilators without improvement. He was diagnosed with AEP based on peripheral eosinophilia and high-resolution CT image results. He made rapid recovery on intravenous glucocorticoids. Vaping has gained popularity among young adults mainly due to the perception that it is a safe alternative to smoking. This case shows that there may be a false sense of security with vaping. Vaping poses a yet-to-be quantified public health threat, which requires further studies.
Spontaneous Hemopneumothorax: A Rare Cause of Unexplained Hemodynamic Instability in a Young Patient
Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is a rare and potentially life-threatening disorder which complicates about 1-12% of patients presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax and has a remarkable predilection for male patients. It may present with signs of hypovolemic shock without apparent cause. While there are no specific guidelines for the management of patients diagnosed with such condition, wide debate in the literature relating to patient selection for surgery remains unresolved, and recently there seems to be a trend increasingly favorable towards early surgical intervention. Video-assisted thoracic surgery emerges as an excellent option for stable patients and has now been considered the gold standard treatment for spontaneous hemopneumothorax. We report the case of a 17-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department with a history of sudden chest pain and dyspnea, with no previous evidence of trauma. On admission, the patient presented with hypotension, tachycardia, and cutaneous pallor. Chest X-ray showed hydropneumothorax on the left hemithorax; then, chest tube was placed with an initial drainage of 2000 ml of blood.