Adult-Onset Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis with Epstein-Barr Virus InfectionRead the full article
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Massive Facial Presentation of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a low-grade cutaneous sarcoma typically located on the trunk or proximal extremities. Less common locations include the head, face, and neck area. This tumour is slow growing with variable clinical appearance. It is known for its locally invasive nature and low metastatic propensity. Because imaging findings are rather nonspecific, biopsy is needed for definite diagnosis. This case describes an unusually large example of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in the less common preauricular region.
Ruptured Median Raphe Cyst Mimicking a Vascular Penile Mass on Ultrasound
Median raphe cysts are uncommon benign cysts thought to occur due to improper fusion of the genital tubercle and can occur anywhere along the median raphe, from the glans to the anus, most commonly occurring along the ventral penile shaft. Limited information is available in the literature about the common imaging features of median raphe cysts with available reports highlighting an avascular cystic lesion. Our case demonstrates a 10-year-old male patient presenting with a ventral penile mass that demonstrated interval growth in the absence of trauma without overlying skin changes. Doppler ultrasound examination demonstrated a solid vascular mass measuring up to 1.6 cm at the ventral aspect of the penis with arterial and venous waveforms. The patient underwent elective resection of the mass which revealed a 2.0 cm inflamed glandular subtype median raphe cyst. This report demonstrates an atypical imaging presentation of an inflamed median raphe cyst, particularly that of a heterogeneous solid mass with arterial and venous blood flow on ultrasound.
Dynamic Echocardiographic Imaging of a Valve-in-Valve Mitral Prosthesis
Dynamic imaging of heart valves and specifically prosthetic valves is a central benefit of echocardiography. Most bioprosthetic heart valves degenerate over a given time and hence require repeat valve replacement which carries a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Reoperation is the standard of care and may still be required after the first successful surgery due to complications disrupting either mechanical or bioprosthetic valves. Such complications can be delayed or even prevented if optimal prosthesis selection is individualized according to patients’ medical and postimplantation follow-up. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman where an open-heart valve-in-valve approach, implanting a mechanical valve in a failed bioprosthetic valve, produced a unique image on transthoracic echocardiography which needs to be recognized by imagers for appropriate patient diagnosis and management.
Mediastinal Extension of a Pancreatic Pseudocyst: A Rare Intrathoracic Complication of Pancreatitis
Pancreatic pseudocysts are a common complication of pancreatitis. However, mediastinal extension of a pseudocyst is rare and often presents with atypical symptoms. We present a case of mediastinal extension of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a 56-year-old woman with a history of alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis, who presented with acute on chronic epigastric abdominal pain and atypical chest pain. Serum lipase was elevated, and imaging by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a paraesophageal fluid collection. This collection was continuous with a peripancreatic pseudocyst and extended into the posterior mediastinum via the esophageal hiatus. Mediastinal extension of a pancreatic pseudocyst was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient was managed conservatively in the hospital with parenteral nutrition therapy, pain control, and close imaging observation. The patient was discharged home to continue conservative management and close imaging follow-up. An initial follow-up CT examination 8 weeks after discharge revealed interval decrease in the posterior mediastinal collection but also interval development of loculated left pleural and pericardial effusions.
Intracochlear Hemorrhage: A Rare Cause of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Inner ear hemorrhage is an extremely rare cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss with few cases reported in the literature. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who presented with a sudden left ear hearing loss, with no tinnitus nor vertigo. The audiogram revealed a profound left sensorineural hearing loss. An MRI of the brain and internal auditory canal was performed 3 weeks after and revealed an increased signal intensity on T1-weighted (T1W) and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in the left cochlea. No other abnormalities were found, in particular no enhancement after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The CISS 3D sequence showed a signal of discreetly lower intensity in the left cochlea compared to the right one. The diagnosis of intracochlear hemorrhage was made. No improvement of the hearing loss has been noted after medical treatment and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
From Spot Sign to Bleeding on the Spot: Classic and Original Signs of Expanding Primary Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematoma
Expansion of a primary spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (PSICH) has become lately of increasing interest, especially after the emergence of its early predictors. However, these signs lacked sensitivity and specificity. The flood phenomenon, defined as a drastic increase in the size of a PSICH during the same magnetic resonance study, was first described in this paper based on the data of a university medical center in Lebanon. Moreover, further review of this data resulted in 205 studies with presumed diagnosis of primary spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage within the last 10 years, of which 29 exams showed typical predictors of hematoma expansion on computed tomography. The intended benefit of this observation is to draw the radiologists’ attention towards minimal variations in the volume of the hematoma between the two extreme sequences of the same MRI study, in order to detect inconspicuous flood phenomena—a direct sign of hematoma expansion.