Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Kartagener SyndromeRead the full article
Case Reports in Surgery publishes case reports and case series related to all aspects of surgery. Topics include but are not limited to oncology, trauma, gastrointestinal, vascular, and transplantation surgery.
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Giant Adult Mesenteric Lipoma: A Rare Cause of Chronic Abdominal Distention and Discomfort
Solitary or multiple lipomas are considered common tumors that can occur anywhere in the body; however, mesenteric lipoma is a rare entity that is well known to present with signs and symptoms of small bowel volvulus. Hereby, we present a case of a 54-year-old male patient with multiple comorbidities who was suffering from chronic abdominal discomfort and gradual increase of his abdominal distention over many years without seeking any medical attention. The patient was seen by a general practitioner after complaining of an inflated abdomen, as he described his condition. After several imaging studies, he was diagnosed with one of the largest mesenteric lipomas in the literature. Mesenteric lipoma should be present in the differential diagnosis of any abdominal tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging plays a major role in differentiating benign from malignant lipomas.
Successful Surgical Removal of the Largest Known Spleen
Background. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that typically presents with symptomatic splenomegaly. The optimal treatment of SMZL not well established. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old man with a history of low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder previously treated with chemotherapy presented with a three-month history of rapidly enlarging abdominal girth. He was found to have large symptomatic splenomegaly by computed tomography. After workup, he underwent preoperative angioembolization of the splenic artery followed by successful splenectomy. The spleen measured 45 cm in greatest dimension and weighed 12.14 kg, more than 12% of the patient’s total body weight, making this both the largest spleen on record as well as the largest spleen ever surgically removed. Pathology was consistent with splenic marginal zone lymphoma. The patient did well and was discharged home on postoperative day 3. Conclusions. SMZL is an infrequent condition that leads to progressive symptomatic splenomegaly which can be managed surgically providing symptomatic improvement and an overall satisfactory oncologic outcome. A multidisciplinary approach to complex cases of SMZL splenomegaly is imperative to achieving optimal outcomes.
Delayed Chylothorax during Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma with a Malignant Pleural Effusion
Chylothorax occurs following dysfunction or disruption of the lymphatic drainage along the thoracic duct. Malignant and traumatic causes account for the majority of these occurrences, with lymphoma accounting for 11-37% of chylothoraces. The clinical course of chylothorax may include dehydration, malnutrition, immunosuppression, electrolyte disturbances, infection, and ultimately death. Management of chylothorax is patient-specific and is based on etiology and surgeon experience. Initially, most chyle leaks are managed with nonoperative strategies, such as gut rest, hyperalimentation, and pleural drainage, and, at times, medium-chained fatty acid diet or octreotide, with hopes to decrease chyle production (Zabeck et al. (2011)). High-output chyle leaks following iatrogenic injury or trauma are commonly managed with thoracic duct ligation. Lymphangiography with or without thoracic duct embolization has become increasingly popular and efficacious with the possible benefit of less morbidity (Cope et al. (2002)). We report a case of a 61-year-old male with delayed chylothorax while having an indwelling pleural catheter for malignant pleural effusion during treatment of follicular lymphoma. Percutaneous thoracic duct embolization was attempted but was unsuccessful. Chemotherapy, fluid management, and nutritional support allowed this to resolve over the course of ninety days from diagnosis. We describe the patient’s clinical course and highlight nonoperative management of delayed chylothorax in the setting of follicular lymphoma treatment.
Incarcerated Appendix Epiploica in Inguinal Hernia Sac: Treatment with Laparoscopic TAPP Approach—Report of a Rare Case
Appendix epiploica (AE) in an incarcerated inguinal hernia sac is very rare. We herein report the case of a 57-year-old man admitted to the emergency department with complaints of nausea, swelling, and pain in the left inguinal area. He was diagnosed with left incarcerated inguinal hernia and treated laparoscopically with transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) mesh hernioplasty. During the operation, AE, lodged in the direct hernia sac, was seen to originate from the sigmoid colon. The narrow internal inguinal ring was incised at the 2 o’clock position using a monopolar hook, and the hypertrophic AE was reduced to the abdomen and resected. The patient was discharged uneventfully on the second postoperative day.
A Rare Cause of Persistent Blood Loss after Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Placement
The laparoscopic placement of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) catheter is a widely used method in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The potential complications of this procedure include perforation of intra-abdominal organs, surgical site infection, peritonitis, catheter migration, catheter blockage, port site herniation, and bleeding. In most cases, bleeding is considered to be an early-onset complication because it mostly occurs within the first seven days after surgery. We report a case of a 68-year-old female patient with a previous history of diabetes mellitus, myelodysplastic syndrome, extensive collateral varices, anaemia, and ESRD due to obstructive uropathy caused by retroperitoneal fibrosis, who presented with persistent blood loss after the laparoscopic placement of a CAPD catheter. Duplex ultrasonography showed that the CAPD catheter was transfixing a superficial epigastric varicose vein, a collateral vein, due to the occlusion of the left external iliac vein. Persistent blood loss after inserting a CAPD catheter without previous imaging of abdominal wall vessels is an indication for further diagnostics.
Surgical Management of L5-S1 Spondylodiscitis on Previously Documented Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Background. Although lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis is frequent in the Caucasian population, its association with spondylodiscitis is extremely rare. Case Description. The authors reported the case of a 44-year-old patient affected by pyogenic spondylodiscitis on previously documented isthmic spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 level. The patient was surgically treated by circumferential arthrodesis combining anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), followed by L4-S1 percutaneous osteosynthesis using the same anesthesia. Appropriate antibiotherapy to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, found on the intraoperative samplings, was then delivered for 3 months, allowing satisfactory evolution on the clinical, biological, and radiological levels. Discussion. This is the first case report of spondylodiscitis affecting an isthmic spondylolisthesis surgically treated by circumferential arthrodesis. In addition to providing large samplings for analysis, it confirms the observed evolution over the past 30 years in modern care history of spondylodiscitis, increasingly including surgical treatment with spinal instrumentation, thus avoiding the need of an external immobilization. Care must nonetheless be exercised in performing the ALIF because of the inflammatory tissue increasing the risk of vascular injury. Conclusion. Spondylodiscitis occurring on an L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis can be safely managed by circumferential arthrodesis combining ALIF then percutaneous osteosynthesis in the same anesthesia, obviously followed by appropriate antibiotherapy.