Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Surgery
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 957257, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/957257
Case Report

Two Patients with Fulminant Clostridium difficile Enteritis Who Had Not Undergone Total Colectomy: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

1Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Received 9 July 2015; Revised 1 November 2015; Accepted 2 November 2015

Academic Editor: Boris Kirshtein

Copyright © 2015 Eliza W. Beal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. P. Dineen, S. H. Bailey, T. H. Pham, and S. Huerta, “Clostridium difficile enteritis: a report of two cases and systematic literature review,” World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 37–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. C. P. Kelly and J. T. LaMont, “Clostridium difficile—more difficult than ever,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 18, pp. 1932–1940, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. A. Zar, S. R. Bakkanagari, K. M. L. S. T. Moorthi, and M. B. Davis, “A comparison of vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, stratified by disease severity,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 302–307, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Louie, M. Gerson, D. Grimard, S. Johnson, A. Poirier, and J. Peppe, “Results of a phase III trial comparing tolevamer, vancomycin and metronidazole in patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDI),” in Proceedings of the 47th Annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, Ill, USA, September 2007.
  5. Y. Li, J. Qian, E. Queener, and B. Shen, “Risk factors and outcome of PCR-detected Clostridium difficile infection in ileal pouch patients,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 397–403, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Tsiouris, J. A. Neale, C. A. Reickert, and M. Times, “Clostridium difficile of the ileum following total abdominal colectomy, with or without proctectomy: who is at risk?” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 424–428, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Wiggelinkhuizen and M. A. N. Gerrits, “Clostridium difficile-induced necrotizing enteritis,” Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, vol. 155, no. 49, Article ID A2414, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. R. Martínez, Y. R. Pizarro, F. M. Arrieta et al., “Clostridium difficile enteritis,” Gastroenterologia y Hepatologia, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 539–545, 2011 (Spanish). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. E. Pricolo, S. Chao, and A. Gregorian, “Clostridium difficile pouchitis after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis,” American Surgeon, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. E214–E215, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Hariri, P. Gouin, J.-J. Tuech, B. Veber, and B. Dureuil, “Clostridium difficile infection causing multiple organ failure and small-bowel enteritis,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 142–144, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Holmer, U. Zurbuchen, B. Siegmund, U. Reichelt, H. J. Buhr, and J.-P. Ritz, “Clostridium difficile infection of the small bowel—two case reports with a literature survey,” International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 245–251, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. E. Kurtz, S. S. Yang, and S. Bank, “Clostridium difficile-associated small bowel enteritis after total proctocolectomy in a Crohn's disease patient,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 76–77, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Thomas, J. Taylor, L. Everitt, and R. Nelson, “Clostridium difficile does not only affect the colon: a case series,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. e156–e157, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Gagandeep and S. Ira, “Clostridium difficile enteritis 9 years after total proctocolectomy: a rare case report,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 962–963, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. S. Khan, D. Levy, and S. Mann, “Clostridium difficile infection in the absence of a colon,” BMJ Case Reports, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. W. Causey, M. P. Spencer, and S. R. Steele, “Clostridium difficile enteritis after colectomy,” American Surgeon, vol. 75, no. 12, pp. 1203–1206, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Shen, F. H. Remzi, and V. W. Fazio, “Fulminant Clostridium difficile-associated pouchitis with a fatal outcome,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 492–495, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Lavallée, B. Laufer, J. Pépin, A. Mitchell, S. Dubé, and A.-C. Labbé, “Fatal Clostridium difficile enteritis caused by the BI/NAP1/027 strain: a case series of ileal C. difficile infections,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1093–1099, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Wee, J. A. D. Poels, I. J. Mccafferty, P. Taniere, and J. Olliff, “A description of CT features of Clostridium difficile infection of the small bowel in four patients and a review of literature,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 82, no. 983, pp. 890–895, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. N. Williams, D. Hemingway, and A. S. Miller, “Enteral Clostridium difficile, an emerging cause for high-output ileostomy,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 951–953, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Boland and J. S. Thompson, “Fulminant Clostridium difficile enteritis after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastamosis,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol. 2008, Article ID 985658, 5 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. O. Peacock, W. Speake, A. Shaw, and A. Goddard, “Clostridium difficile enteritis in a patient after total proctocolectomy,” BMJ Case Reports, vol. 2009, Article ID 1165, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Fleming, N. Khursigara, N. O'Connell, S. Darby, and D. Waldron, “Fulminant small bowel enteritis: a rare complication of Clostridium difficile-associated disease,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 801–802, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. A. Yafi, C. R. Selvasekar, and R. R. Cima, “Clostridium difficile enteritis following total colectomy,” Techniques in Coloproctology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 73–74, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. E. Follmar, S. A. Condron, I. I. Turner, J. D. Nathan, and K. A. Ludwig, “Treatment of metronidazole-refractory Clostridium difficile enteritis with vancomycin,” Surgical Infections, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 195–200, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. S. H. El Muhtaseb, J. K. Apollos, and J. S. Dreyer, “Clostridium difficile enteritis: a cause for high ileostomy output,” ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 78, no. 5, p. 416, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. J. Wood, N. Hyman, J. C. Hebert, and H. Blaszyk, “Catastrophic Clostridium difficile enteritis in a pelvic pouch patient: report of a case,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 350–352, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. A. Kim, P. Wry, E. Hughes Jr., J. Butcher, and D. Barbot, “Clostridium difficile small-bowel enteritis after total proctocolectomy: a rare but fatal, easily missed diagnosis. Report of a case,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 920–923, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. J. Lundeen, M. F. Otterson, D. G. Binion, E. T. Carman, and W. J. Peppard, “Clostridium difficile enteritis: an early postoperative complication in inflammatory bowel disease patients after colectomy,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 138–142, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Shen, J. R. Goldblum, T. L. Hull, F. H. Remzi, A. E. Bennett, and V. W. Fazio, “Clostridium difficile-associated pouchitis,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2361–2364, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. D. Hayetian, T. E. Read, M. Brozovich, R. P. Garvin, and P. F. Caushaj, “Ileal perforation secondary to Clostridium difficile enteritis: report of 2 cases,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 97–99, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. D. Mann, J. Pitt, R. G. Springall, and A. V. Thillainayagam, “Clostridium difficile infection—an unusual cause of refractory pouchitis: report of a case,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 267–270, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. F. Freiler, S. J. Durning, and P. T. Ender, “Clostridium difficile small bowel enteritis occurring after total colectomy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1429–1432, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. J. Tjandra, A. Street, R. J. Thomas, R. Gibson, P. Eng, and J. Cade, “Fatal Clostridium difficile infection of the small bowel after complex colorectal surgery,” ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 500–503, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Jacobs, K. Barnard, R. Fishel, and J. D. Gradon, “Extracolonic manifestations of Clostridium difficile infections. Presentation of 2 cases and review of the literature,” Medicine, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 88–101, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Z. Vesoulis, G. Williams, and B. Matthews, “Pseudomembranous enteritis after proctocolectomy: report of a case,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 551–554, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. A. Kralovich, J. Sacksner, R. A. Karmy-Jones, and J. C. Eggenberger, “Pseudomembranous colitis with associated fulminant ileitis in the defunctionalized limb of a jejunal-ileal bypass: report of a case,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 622–624, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. C. M. Boey, T. M. Ramanujam, and L. M. Looi, “Clostridium difficile-related necrotizing pseudomembranous enteritis in association with Henoch-Schonlein purpura,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 426–429, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. F. Yee Jr., R. S. Brown Jr., and J. W. Ostroff, “Fatal Clostridium difficile enteritis after total abdominal colectomy,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 45–47, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Tsutaoka, J. Hansen, D. Johnson, and M. Holodniy, “Antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous enteritis due to Clostridium difficile,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 982–984, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. P. Kuntz, M. J. Shortsleeve, P. A. Kantrowitz, and G. P. Gauvin, “Clostridium difficile enteritis. A cause of intramural gas,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1942–1944, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. L. Miller, J. D. Sedlack, and R. W. Holt, “Perforation complicating rifampin-associated pseudomembranous enteritis,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 124, no. 9, p. 1082, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. P. Testore, A. Pantosti, and G. Panichi, “Pseudomembranous enteritis associated with Clostridium difficile,” Italian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 229–230, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. R. Shortland, R. C. Spencer, and J. L. Williams, “Pseudomembranous colitis associated with changes in an ileal conduit,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1184–1187, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. H. Taylor, S. P. Borriello, and A. J. Taylor, “Isolation of Clostridium difficile from the small bowel,” British Medical Journal, vol. 283, article 412, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. S. Hyams, M. M. Berman, and H. Helgason, “Nonantibiotic-associated enterocolitis caused by Clostridium difficile in an infant,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 750–752, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. T. LaMont, Y. M. Trnka, J. T. Lamont, and Y. M. Trnka, “Therapeutic implications of Clostridium difficile toxin during relapse of chronic inflammatory bowel disease,” The Lancet, vol. 315, no. 8165, pp. 381–383, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Killeen, S. T. Martin, J. Hyland, P. R. O' Connell, and D. C. Winter, “Clostridium difficile enteritis: a new role for an old foe,” Surgeon, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 256–262, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus