Case Reports in Urology

Case Reports in Urology / 2015 / Article

Case Report | Open Access

Volume 2015 |Article ID 120535 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/120535

William Derval Aiken, Joshua J. Anzinger, "Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen", Case Reports in Urology, vol. 2015, Article ID 120535, 3 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/120535

Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen

Academic Editor: Christian Pavlovich
Received06 Apr 2015
Accepted14 Jun 2015
Published17 Jun 2015

Abstract

A man with prostate cancer on a regime of active surveillance had a laboratory-confirmed acute Chikungunya virus infection. The patient experienced a sudden increase in serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) during the acute illness that caused him anxiety and confounded interpretation of the PSA test. Six weeks after the onset of Chikungunya Fever symptoms, the elevated serum PSA returned to baseline. The association of Chikungunya Fever and elevated serum PSA may result in misinterpretation of the PSA test, triggering unnecessary prostate biopsy or other management errors.

1. Introduction

The Caribbean recently experienced an epidemic of Chikungunya Fever, a mosquito-borne infection caused by the Chikungunya virus that is [1] commonly associated with abrupt onset of fever, asthenia, headache, and debilitating joint pain [2, 3] after a 2–10 day incubation period. Approximately 50% of infected persons also experience a generalized pruritic rash [4]. Acute symptoms occur for 1–4 days and are associated with viremia that usually resolves 6 days after the onset of symptoms [5]. Chronic joint pain lasting greater than a month is commonly observed in most [69] but not all [10] populations studied. In one study, most chronic infections were found to occur in persons ≥30 years of age [7]. Chronic joint pain can persist after the acute viral infection or can reoccur after the resolution of acute symptoms.

Chikungunya virus continues to disseminate beyond the Caribbean to other regions within the Americas [3], dramatically extending affected areas beyond the Eastern Hemisphere. Most countries in the world have now reported Chikungunya virus infections (http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/geo/index.html), and genetic mutation [1115] and climate change [16] could further increase geographical dissemination of the virus to unaffected regions.

During the recent Chikungunya Fever epidemic in the Caribbean, a patient residing in Kingston, Jamaica, was being monitored for prostate adenocarcinoma. He presented with clinical symptoms of Chikungunya Fever and a concomitant, dramatic elevation of serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a commonly used biomarker to screen patients for prostate cancer. Here, we report on a possible association between acute Chikungunya virus infection and elevation of serum PSA.

2. Case Presentation

A 64-year-old Afro-Caribbean man diagnosed with Gleason 6 (3 + 3) adenocarcinoma of the prostate involving 5% of 1 of 12 cores arising from the left lobe of the prostate and with a prebiopsy PSA level of 8.59 ng/mL (June 13, 2014) and cT1c (clinically benign) prostate on digital rectal examination (DRE) went on a regime of active surveillance after diagnosis on July 14, 2014. The patient was advised to return 3 months later for a follow-up appointment (see Figure 1 for timeline of events).

2.1. Three Months Later

On October 4, 2014, the patient’s PSA level was 11.3 ng/mL. Four days later (October 8, 2014), he developed acute symptoms of fever, rash on the trunk and proximal limbs, headaches, and then severe joint pain. After notification of the PSA test results, the patient was alarmed by the rise in PSA compared to the level at the time of diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma and requested that the PSA test be repeated by another laboratory, which reported a PSA level of 27.2 ng/mL on October 13, 2014.

When seen, he denied having any lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) apart from increased urinary frequency which he attributed to increased fluid intake. DRE was unchanged and the prostate was nontender. Given the sudden rise in the PSA, he was diagnosed as having subclinical prostatitis possibly related to Chikungunya infection. The patient was advised to test for Chikungunya and Dengue virus infection and repeat PSA testing in 4 weeks.

2.2. Four Weeks Later

The patient was seen 5 weeks later on November 26, 2014, and he complained of ongoing joint pain and swelling of the hands and ankles which was so severe; it necessitated a steroid injection 2 days earlier. He had no LUTS and repeat PSA was 7.64 ng/mL on November 20, 2014. Recent Chikungunya virus infection was confirmed from a serum sample taken on December 1, 2014, by the presence of Chikungunya virus-specific IgM. Dengue virus-specific IgM was not present, indicating that recent infection with Dengue virus was unlikely.

3. Discussion

This is the first report of a possible association between Chikungunya virus infection and a sudden rise in PSA that could be due to subclinical prostatitis. Although the pathogenic mechanism responsible for the increase in PSA during Chikungunya virus infection is unknown, microbes implicated in prostatitis are believed to cause an increase in serum PSA through one of three mechanisms that are not mutually exclusive. These include leakage of PSA into the bloodstream, increased blood flow through the prostate, and increased vascular permeability [17].

If an association between acute Chikungunya virus infection and sudden elevations of the PSA is present, it would be important for clinicians to be aware of it, as it may confound the interpretation of PSA, causing unnecessary patient anxiety, and lead to unnecessary and invasive tests, or worse a change in patient management.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

References

  1. E. D. Fourie and J. G. Morrison, “Rheumatoid arthritic syndrome after chikungunya fever,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 130–132, 1979. View at: Google Scholar
  2. C. Schilte, F. Staikovsky, T. Couderc et al., “Chikungunya virus-associated long-term arthralgia: a 36-month prospective longitudinal study,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e2137, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. S. C. Weaver and M. Lecuit, “Chikungunya virus and the global spread of a mosquito-borne disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 372, no. 13, pp. 1231–1239, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. F. Staikowsky, F. Talarmin, P. Grivard et al., “Prospective study of chikungunya virus acute infection in the Island of La Réunion during the 2005-2006 outbreak,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 10, Article ID e7603, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. S.-D. Thiberville, V. Boisson, J. Gaudart, F. Simon, A. Flahault, and X. de Lamballerie, “Chikungunya fever: a clinical and virological investigation of outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e2004, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. G. Borgherini, P. Poubeau, A. Jossaume et al., “Persistent arthralgia associated with chikungunya virus: a study of 88 adult patients on Reunion Island,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 469–475, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. S. P. Manimunda, P. Vijayachari, R. Uppoor et al., “Clinical progression of chikungunya fever during acute and chronic arthritic stages and the changes in joint morphology as revealed by imaging,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 392–399, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. F. Simon, P. Parola, M. Grandadam et al., “Chikungunya infection: an emerging rheumatism among travelers returned from Indian Ocean islands. Report of 47 cases,” Medicine, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 123–137, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. M. K. Win, A. Chow, F. Dimatatac, C. J. Go, and Y. S. Leo, “Chikungunya fever in Singapore: acute clinical and laboratory features, and factors associated with persistent arthralgia,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 111–114, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. D. Nkoghe, R. F. Kassa, M. Caron et al., “Clinical forms of chikungunya in Gabon, 2010,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 6, no. 2, Article ID e1517, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. I. Schuffenecker, I. Iteman, A. Michault et al., “Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 3, no. 7, Article ID e263, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. K. A. Tsetsarkin, R. Chen, R. Yun et al., “Multi-peaked adaptive landscape for chikungunya virus evolution predicts continued fitness optimization in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, article 4084, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. K. A. Tsetsarkin, D. L. Vanlandingham, C. E. McGee, and S. Higgs, “A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 3, no. 12, article e201, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. K. A. Tsetsarkin and S. C. Weaver, “Sequential adaptive mutations enhance efficient vector switching by Chikungunya virus and its epidemic emergence,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 7, no. 12, Article ID e1002412, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. M. Vazeille, S. Moutailler, D. Coudrier et al., “Two Chikungunya isolates from the outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean) exhibit different patterns of infection in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus,” PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 11, Article ID e1168, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. L. P. Campbell, C. Luther, D. Moo-Llanes, J. M. Ramsey, R. Danis-Lozano, and A. T. Peterson, “Climate change influences on global distributions of dengue and chikungunya virus vectors,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological sciences, vol. 370, no. 1665, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. P. Sindhwani and C. M. Wilson, “Prostatitis and serum prostate-specific antigen,” Current Urology Reports, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 307–312, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2015 William Derval Aiken and Joshua J. Anzinger. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder
Views2194
Downloads454
Citations

Related articles

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.