A Complicated Entity: Acute Celiac Artery Dissection with Resultant Pancreatitis, Duodenitis, and CholecystitisRead the full article
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A Tumultuous Course of Exogenous Testosterone by a Bodybuilder Causing a Catastrophic Hypercoagulable State in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit
Present literature demonstrates an equivocal relationship between testosterone and thrombogenicity. Herein, we describe a case in which a patient used an unspecified amount and duration of exogenous testosterone injections, subsequently developing thrombotic events in his: right radial artery, right iliac artery, superficial femoral artery, splenic artery and a bilateral lower lobe pulmonary embolism. As a result, clinicians should consider exogenous testosterone use as a potential risk factor when the etiology of a patient’s thrombotic events are not clear. We also completed a literature review of the molecular mechanisms in which testosterone can increase the clot burden through an increases human platelet thromboxane A2 receptor density and an increase in erythropoiesis.
Massive Scrotal Hematoma due to Ruptured Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysm in a Patient with Aortobifemoral Bypass Surgery: CTA Evaluation
A 74-year-old male patient was presented with scrotal swelling and a pulsatile mass of the left femoro-inguinal region. His medical history included hypertension, coronary artery disease, respiratory failure, and an aortobifemoral bypass surgery performed 7 years ago. Ultrasound evaluation revealed a massive scrotal hematoma. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was conducted, confirming the aortobifemoral graft existence and revealing bilateral anastomotic pseudoaneurysms with the left one being ruptured, resulting in extension of the hematoma to the left femoro-inguinal region and the scrotum. An emergency surgery was performed, where proximal control of the left limb of the synthetic graft as well as distal control of the iliac vessels were accomplished. After the control of the hemorrhage, an iliofemoral bypass with a Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 6 mm synthetic graft was placed. Unfortunately, the patient passed away during the first postoperative day due to myocardial infarction.
Endovascular Occlusion of a Renal Arteriovenous Fistula with Renal Vein Aneurysm Formation for Rupture Prevention
Purpose. To report the effectiveness of left renal artery (LRA) occlusion using Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) II as treatment for a high-flow renal arteriovenous fistula (RAVF) with multiple renal vein aneurysms (RVA) to prevent aneurysm rupture and cardiac decompensation. Case Report. A 59-year-old female suffering from a post-traumatic RAVF presented with tachycardia and increased cardiac output (CO). Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a high-flow RAVF with multiple RVAs and unilateral critically reduced kidney function. Appreciating recent interventional therapeutic advances, the patient was treated with endovascular placement of AVP II into the left renal artery (LRA) resulting in complete occlusion of the RAVF to effectively reduce the risk of RVA rupture and cardiac decompensation. No anti-platelet medication was administrated after the occlusion of the LRA. The patient’s physical capacity improved since right heart volume strain was normalized, and CO was reduced. Conclusion. Transbrachial AVP II occlusion of the LRA is effective to occlude high-flow RAVFs to prevent risk of life-threatening RVA rupture. Additional follow-up is warranted to verify long-term effectiveness of this approach.
Ruptured Superficial Femoral Artery Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysm after 30 Years
Introduction. Anastomotic pseudoaneurysms are a complication of vascular reconstructive surgery with the majority in the femoral region. Although rare, ruptured femoral anastomotic pseudoaneurysms have high mortality and require emergency surgery. Case Presentation. A 60-year-old male with a history of a left leg crush injury was treated with a superficial femoral artery interposition vein graft 30 years ago. He presented nowadays with a three-day history of severe pain in his left thigh. CT angiography demonstrated a ruptured anastomotic pseudoaneurysm with contrast extravasation into an intramuscular hematoma. He had significant scarring from his previous surgeries which made the leg hostile for an open repair. Therefore, percutaneous access selectively cannulated the left iliofemoral vasculature. An angiogram showed a distal superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. Subsequently, two 10mmx15cm Viabahn covered stents (Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) were placed bridging healthy superficial femoral artery. A completion angiogram demonstrated no extravasation into the pseudoaneurysm. The patient recovered and was discharged home two days postoperatively. Conclusion. Ruptured femoral anastomotic pseudoaneurysms are traditionally repaired with open pseudoaneurysm excision and arterial reconstruction, although endovascular repair has been reported. Furthermore, most femoral anastomotic pseudoaneurysms form less than 10 years after initial operation. We present a unique case of ruptured superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, 30 years after the initial operation. Endovascular stents offer effective treatment for ruptured anastomotic pseudoaneurysms.
A Rare Case of Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysm Presenting as Unilateral Acute Limb Ischemia
True aneurysms of the tibial arteries are extremely rare. Of the few previously described tibial artery aneurysms, there are scant reports of isolated true aneurysms of the posterior tibial artery (PTA). In this report, we describe the second documented case of bilateral true PTA aneurysms. Unique aspects of this case are that the aneurysmal PTA were the only patent tibial arteries bilaterally, the aneurysms were degenerative in nature, and initial patient presentation was due to aneurysm thrombosis causing acute foot ischemia. The clinical and radiological features of this case, as well as surgical decision making and management, are discussed.
Endovascular Embolization of a Dissected External Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Young Female with Neurofibromatosis Complicated by Preeclampsia
Carotid artery pseudoaneurysms are infrequently encountered in clinical practice. Major contributory etiologies include blunt trauma, infections, cystic medial necrosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, arteriosclerosis, and congenital abnormalities. The authors report an exceedingly rare case of a dissected external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a 26-year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis complicated by preeclampsia at 28-week period of gestation, safely and successfully treated by coil embolization.