Smoking Status Modifies the Relationship between Th2 Biomarkers and Small Airway Obstruction in AsthmaRead the full article
Canadian Respiratory Journal provides a multidisciplinary forum for research in all areas of respiratory medicine. The journal publishes research related to asthma, allergy, COPD, non-invasive ventilation, therapeutic intervention etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Alice M Turner, is based at the University of Birmingham, UK. Her main research interests are the clinical aspects of alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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Estimates of Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension according to Different International Definitions
Background. Pulmonary hypertension is a dreaded disease associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The pulmonary hypertension developing due to chronic respiratory disease is a unique subset with symptoms often getting masqueraded by the underlying respiratory condition. The importance of early detection of this complication has been realized worldwide, and recently, the definition of pulmonary hypertension was revised to set the cutoff of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) at 20 mmHg instead of 25 mmHg at rest. In our study, we have tried to estimate the difference this new definition brings to the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension among interstitial lung disease patients at our centre. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study in which all the patients of ILDs (n = 239) attending the outdoor and indoor Department of Respiratory Medicine, King George’s Medical University, India, for the duration of one year were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography along with measurement of serum pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and troponin T values. The data were analyzed using the different definitions, and the prevalence was compared. Result. Incidence of pulmonary hypertension among ILD patients at mPAP cutoff ≥ 25 was 28.9%, while that at value ≥20 mmHg, incidence of pulmonary hypertension increased to 46.0%. An increment of 15–20% in incidence of pulmonary hypertension was observed among different types of ILD when cutoff of mPAP was changed. Conclusion. The new definition helps in a significant increase in the detection of pulmonary hypertension, which certainly helps in earlier detection and better management of patients.
BCG Vaccination in Early Childhood and Risk of Atopic Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Several large-scale studies suggest that Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination in early childhood may reduce the risk of atopic diseases, but the findings remain controversial. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential correlation between early childhood BCG vaccination and the risk of developing atopic diseases. Methods. Eligible studies published on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were systematically sourced from 1950 to July 2021. Studies with over 100 participants and focusing on the association between BCG vaccine and atopic diseases including eczema, asthma, and rhinitis were included. Preliminary assessment of methods, interventions, outcomes, and study quality was performed by two independent investigators. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Random effects of the meta-analysis were performed to define pooled estimates of the effects. Results. Twenty studies with a total of 222,928 participants were selected. The quantitative analysis revealed that administering BCG vaccine in early childhood reduced the risk of developing asthma significantly (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.93), indicating a protective efficacy of 23% against asthma development among vaccinated children. However, early administration of BCG vaccine did not significantly reduce the risk of developing eczema (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.16) and rhinitis (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.21). Further analysis revealed that the effect of BCG vaccination on asthma prevalence was significant especially in developed countries (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.92). Conclusion. BCG vaccination in early childhood is associated with reduced risk of atopic disease, especially in developed countries.
Clinical Features and Risk Factors for Mortality in Hospitalized Older Adults with Pneumonia
Background. Pneumonia is a common disease among the aging population in Japan. Hence, it is important to elucidate the risks related to pneumonia mortality. Since Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most commonly observed pathogen, pneumococcal vaccination is recommended to older adults. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the clinical features of pneumonia, including the status of pneumococcal vaccination, in hospitalized older adult patients in Japan. Methods. This single-centered retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of all patients with acute pneumonia at Fujisawa City Hospital in Japan from April 2018 to March 2019. Patients were divided into two groups based on their history of pneumococcal vaccination. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, while the secondary endpoint was risk factors associated with mortality. Results. We included 93 patients with pneumonia in this retrospective study. Although the mortality rate was higher in the vaccinated group (15.8%) than in the unvaccinated group (9.1%), vaccination status was not identified as a significant risk factor for mortality after multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio: 2.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.667–11.02; ). In addition, the A-DROP score was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: 2.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–5.72; ). Conclusions. Our study suggested that the A-DROP score is a risk factor of mortality for pneumonia in older adults. In addition, pneumococcal vaccination history was related to increased mortality; however, the influence of the vaccination remains unclear because of the small sample size.
The Extent of Honeycombing on Computed Tomography Cannot Predict the Treatment Outcome of Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Interstitial Lung Disease
Background. The purpose of this retrospective study was to clarify whether the presence of honeycombing on computed tomography (CT) can affect the prognosis of patients with acute exacerbations (AEs) of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Methods. Clinical parameters including age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score (CCIS), blood biomarkers, and 3-month mortality were retrospectively compared between the CT honeycombing present and absent groups at the diagnosis of AEs of ILDs. Results. Ninety-five patients who were on corticosteroid pulse therapy were assessed. Though log-rank tests showed that Kaplan–Meier survival curves of the high and low ground-glass opacity (GGO) score groups differed significantly in 3-month mortality in patients with AEs of idiopathic ILDs ( = 0.007) and overall patients ( = 0.045), there was no significant difference between the CT honeycombing present and absent groups in patients with AEs of idiopathic ILDs ( = 0.472) and AEs of secondary ILDs ( = 0.905), as well as of overall patients ( = 0.600). In addition, whereas CCIS (OR, 1.436; 95% CI, 1.156–1.842; < 0.001) was a significant predictor of 3-month mortality in the CT honeycombing absent group, serum LDH (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002–1.007; = 0.001) was a significant predictor in the CT honeycombing present group. Conclusions. The clinical features of patients with or without honeycombing may differ due to the difference in prognostic factors, but these groups were found to have similar prognoses 3 months after AE onset, and clinicopathological examinations according to these groups are essential.
Efficacy and Safety of Ergoferon in Children from 6 Months to 6 Years Old with Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Contemporary Outpatient Practice: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ergoferon in combination with symptomatic therapy in children from 6 months to 6 years old with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in contemporary outpatient practice, an international, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial was performed. Derived by technological treatment of antibodies to interferon gamma, histamine, and CD4, Ergoferon was previously proved to modulate its molecular targets promoting effective antiviral protection. The data of 282 patients with oral temperature ≥38.0°C plus mild to moderate severity of flu-like nonspecific and nasal/throat/chest symptoms were included in intention-to-treat analysis (n = 140, Ergoferon group; n = 142, placebo group). Time to alleviation of all ARI symptoms was the primary endpoint, and 8 outcome measures were estimated as the secondary endpoints. Respiratory viruses were confirmed in 57.1% (Ergoferon) and 54.9% (Placebo) of patients. Compared to placebo, Ergoferon reduced time to alleviation of all ARI symptoms (4.5 ± 1.7 versus 5.2 ± 2.2 days in placebo; ) including fever (2.8 ± 1.5 vs 3.4 ± 2.0; ), flu-like nonspecific (4.0 ± 1.8 vs 4.7 ± 2.2, ), and nasal/throat/chest (4.3 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 2.3; ) symptoms. Ergoferon add-on therapy decreased the mean total symptom severity score (according to 4-point scale for each symptom), ARI severity, frequency of antipyretic use, and percentage of complication requiring antibiotics and increased the percentage of recovered patients. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) in the Ergoferon group was significantly lower compared to the placebo group (7.0% versus 18.8%; ) including infectious diseases (3.5% vs 12.5%; ). In the Ergoferon group, AEs were mild or moderate. In 8 (57.1%) cases, AEs were unrelated to Ergoferon, in 5 (35.7%), the relationship was uncertain, and in 1 (7.1%), it was possible (mild rash on the face). Ergoferon treatment is beneficial for infants and young children with ARI in contemporary outpatient practice. Being well-tolerated, Ergoferon increases the symptomatic therapy effectiveness and improves the patient condition and disease outcomes.
Blood Eosinophils and Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COPD
Background. Blood eosinophils predict the response to therapy, risk of exacerbation, and readmission in COPD. This study investigates whether blood eosinophils predict pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) outcomes in COPD. Methods. We categorized patients into eosinophilic (blood eosinophils ≥300 cells/ml) or noneosinophilic (<300 cells/ml). In a retrospective design, we compared changes within and between the two groups on BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), FEV1, and mMRC dyspnea scale. Results. Of 206 patients enrolled, 176 were included for analysis; 90 were eosinophilic. BODE index improved in both groups: (MD −1.25; 95% CI (−0.45, −4.25), ) in the eosinophilic and (MD −1.33; 95% CI (−1.72, −0.94), ) in the noneosinophilic, but a higher BODE index remained in the eosinophilic (4.98); adjusted mean change (β): 0.7 (95% CI (0.15, 1.26), ). 6MWT improved by 29.3 m in the eosinophilic (95% CI (14.2, 44.4), ) vs. 115.1 m in the noneosinophilic (95% CI (−30.4, 260.6), ). FEV1 did not change in the eosinophilic (MD −0.6; 95% CI (−2.64, 1.48), ), but improved by 2.5% in the noneosinophilic (MD 2.5; 95% CI (0.77, 4.17), ). There were no significant between-group differences in 6MWT and FEV1; adjusted mean changes (β) were −9.69 m (95% CI (−39.51, 20.14), ) and −2.31% (95% CI (−5.69, 1.08), ), respectively. There were no significant within- or between-group changes in the mMRC scale. Conclusion. Although PR improves the BODE index in both eosinophilic and noneosinophilic COPD, a higher eosinophil count (≥300 cells/ml) is associated with a higher (worse) BODE index. Blood eosinophils may predict PR outcomes.