Article of the Year 2022
Chitosan-Coated Solid Lipid Nano-Encapsulation Improves the Therapeutic Antiairway Inflammation Effect of Berberine against COPD in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed RatsRead the full article
Canadian Respiratory Journal provides a multidisciplinary forum for research in all areas of respiratory medicine. The journal publishes research related to asthma, allergy, COPD, non-invasive ventilation, therapeutic intervention etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Alice M Turner, is based at the University of Birmingham, UK. Her main research interests are the clinical aspects of alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
The Effects of Nebulized Inhaled Triptolide on Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma
Inhalation of nebulized TP has received little attention in the past. Here, we intend to investigate the effect of nebulized inhaled TP on airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. 29 SPF BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: blank control (Blk, n = 5), normal saline (NS, n = 8), dexamethasone (Dex, n = 8), and TP (n = 8). During the process of sensitization, mice in the three intervention groups were treated with nebulized NS, an injection of Dex, and nebulized triptolide, respectively. Then bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), peripheral blood, and lung tissue were collected. Relevant cytokines, transcriptional factors, and CD4+Th17+ T cell proportions were assessed and compared. IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 demonstrated a significant difference between groups in the following order: Dex < TP < NS (), while IL-10 changed in the opposite direction (). At the transcriptional level in lung tissue, the Ct value of IL-17 in the Dex group was significantly higher than in the NS and TP groups (). Meanwhile, it was higher in the TP group than in the NS group (). The Ct value of RORγt demonstrated a significant difference among three groups in the following order: Dex > TP > NS (). An opposite trend of FoxP3 Ct value was revealed in the order: NS > TP > Dex. The proportion of CD4+Th17+ cells was 9.53 ± 2.74% in the NS group, 4.23 ± 2.26% in the Dex group, and 6.76 ± 2.99% in the TP group, which shows significant differences between the NS and Dex () or NS and TP groups (). Inhalation of nebulized triptolide can play a role in suppressing airway inflammation with inflammatory cytokines and transcriptional factors reduced and CD4+Th17+ T cells dampened, also in a manner less than injected dexamethasone.
Nocturnal Hypoventilation in the Patients Submitted to Thoracic Surgery
Introduction. Nocturnal hypoventilation may occur due to obesity, concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obstructive sleep apnea, and/or the use of narcotic analgesics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk and severity of nocturnal hypoventilation as assessed by transcutaneous continuous capnography in the patients submitted to thoracic surgery. Materials and Methods. The material of the study consisted of 45 obese (BMI 34.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2) and 23 nonobese (25.5 ± 3.6 kg/m2) patients, who underwent thoracic surgery because of malignant (57 patients) and nonmalignant tumors. All the patients received routine analgesic treatment after surgery including intravenous morphine sulfate. Overnight transcutaneous measurements of CO2 partial pressure (tcpCO2) were performed before and after surgery in search of nocturnal hypoventilation, i.e., the periods lasting at least 10 minutes with tcpCO2 above 55 mmHg. Results. Nocturnal hypoventilation during the first night after thoracic surgery was detected in 10 patients (15%), all obese, three of them with COPD, four with high suspicion of moderate-to-severe OSA syndrome, and one with chronic daytime hypercapnia. In the patients with nocturnal hypoventilation, the mean tcpCO2 was 53.4 ± 6.1 mmHg, maximal tcpCO2 was 59.9 ± 8.4 mmHg, and minimal tcpCO2 was 46.4 ± 6.7 mmHg during the first night after surgery. In these patients, there were higher values of minimal, mean, and maximal tcpCO2 in the preoperative period. Nocturnal hypoventilation in the postoperative period did not influence the duration of hospitalization. Among 12 patients with primary lung cancer who died during the first two years of observation, there were 11 patients without nocturnal hypoventilation in the early postoperative period. Conclusion. Nocturnal hypoventilation may occur in the patients after thoracic surgery, especially in obese patients with bronchial obstruction, obstructive sleep apnea, or chronic daytime hypercapnia, and does not influence the duration of hospitalization.
Downregulation of VRK1 Inhibits Progression of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma through DNA Damage
Background. Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a common malignancy. And the antitumor effect of bovine pox virus-associated kinase 1 (VRK1) is becoming a hot research topic. Methods. VRK1 expression and prognosis in LUSC were analyzed using the GEPIA database. The expression of VRK1 mRNA was detected in 25 LUSC clinical tissue samples by RT-PCR. VRK1 shRNA was transfected into LUSC NCI-H520 and SK-MES-1 cell lines to interfere with VRK1 expression, and the efficiency of VRK1 shRNA interference was detected by the western blot. The effects of VRK1 downregulation on LUSC cell viability, migration, cell cycle, and apoptosis were analyzed by the CCK8 assay, scratch assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry. The effect of VRK1 downregulation on DNA damage response (DDR) was examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot assays and further validated by in vivo experiments. Results. VRK1 was highly expressed in both LUSC tissues and cells. Survival analysis showed that the overall survival of LUSC patients with high VRK1 expression was significantly lower than that of LUSC patients with low VRK1 expression (). The expression level of the VRK1 gene was significantly higher in cancer tissues of LUSC patients than in paracancerous tissues. After transfection of VRK1 shRNA in both LUSC cells, cell activity decreased (), migration ability started to be inhibited (), the ratio of G0/G1 phase cells increased (), and apoptosis rate increased (). Immunofluorescence and western blot results showed that shVRK1 increased the level of γ-H2A.X () and promoted apoptosis of tumor cells (). In addition, the results of animal experiments showed that shVRK1 had antitumor effects () and a combined effect with DOX (). Conclusion. The downregulation of VRK1 significantly affected the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cell cycle progression of LUSC cells via DDR, suggesting that VRK1 is a suitable target for potential LUSC therapy.
Patient and Caregiver Perceptions of Airway Clearance Methods Used for Cystic Fibrosis
Introduction. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation guidelines recommend people with CF perform daily airway clearance. This can be difficult for patients, as some find it time consuming or uncomfortable. Data comparing airway clearance methods are limited. We surveyed patients and their families to understand which methods are preferred and identify obstacles to performing airway clearance. Methods. We designed a REDCap survey and enrolled participants in 2021. Respondents reported information on airway clearance usage, time commitment, and medication use. They rated airway clearance methods for effectiveness, comfort, time commitment, importance, and compatibility with other treatments. The analysis included descriptive statistics and clustering. Results. 60 respondents started and 52 completed the survey. The median patient age was 20 years. Respondents experienced a median of four airway clearance methods in their lifetime, including chest wall oscillation (vest, 92%), manual chest physical therapy (CPT, 88%), forced expiration technique (huff or cough, 77%), and exercise (75%). Past 30-day use was highest for exercise (62%) and vest (57%). The time commitment was generally less than 2 hours daily. Of those eligible for CFTR modulators, 53% reported decreased time commitment to airway clearance after starting treatment. On a scale of 0–100, respondents rated CFTR modulators as their most important treatment (median 99.5), followed by exercise (88). Discussion. Patients and caregivers are familiar with several methods of airway clearance for CF. They report distinct strengths and limitations of each method. Exercise and vest are the most common methods of airway clearance. The use of CFTR modulators may reduce patient-reported time commitment to airway clearance.
High-Flow Nasal Oxygen versus Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Background. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) can be used in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but the effect of HFNC on clinical outcomes in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is still uncertain. Methods. We searched electronic literature databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in hypercapnic patients with AECOPD. The primary endpoint of this meta-analysis was PaCO2, PaO2, and SpO2. The secondary outcomes were the respiratory rate, mortality, complications, and intubation rate. Results. We included 7 RCTs with a total of 481 patients. There were no significant differences on measures of PaCO2 (MD = −0.42, 95%CI −3.60 to 2.75, Z = 0.26, and = 0.79), PaO2 (MD = −1.36, 95%CI −4.69 to 1.97, Z = 0.80, and = 0.42), and SpO2 (MD = −0.78, 95%CI −1.67 to 0.11, Z = 1.72, = 0.08) between the HFNC group and the NIV group. There was no significant difference in measures of the mortality and intubation rate between the HFNC group (OR = 0.72, 95%CI 0.30 to 1.69, Z = 0.76, and = 0.44) and the NIV group (OR = 2.38, 95%CI 0.49 to 11.50, Z = 1.08, and = 0.28), respectively. But the respiratory rate in the HFNC group was lower than that in the NIV group (MD = −1.13, 95%CI −2.13 to −0.14, Z = 2.23, and = 0.03), and fewer complications were found in the HFNC group (OR = 0.26, 95%CI 0.14 to 0.47, Z = 4.46, and < 0.00001). Conclusion. NIV was noninferior to HFNC in decreasing PaCO2 and increasing PaO2 and SpO2. Similarly, the mortality and intubation rate was similar among the two groups. The respiratory rate and complications were inferior in the AECOPD group treated with HFNC.
YAP1 as a Novel Negative Biomarker of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for EGFR-Mutant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Background. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a standard care in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its application to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant NSCLC patients is confronted with drug resistance. This study aimed to clarify the potential role of Yes1-associated transcriptional regulator (YAP1) in ICIs treatment for EGFR-mutant NSCLC population. Methods. All the clinical data of NSCLC were downloaded from Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for GSE11969 and GSE72094. Based on YAP1 expression, all the NSCLC patients including the EGFR-mutant and EGFR-wildtype (WT) patients were divided into two groups, YAP1_High and YAP1_Low. Using cBioPortal, genetic alterations were analyzed for identification of immunogenicity in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. MR analysis was used to analyze the hub gene of EGFR. The infiltration of immune cells and the expression of the identified tumor-associated antigens were identified with TIMER. By graph learning-based dimensionality reduction analysis, the immune landscape was visualized. Moreover, survival analysis was performed to verify the predictive value of YAP1 in ICIs treatment for EGFR-mutant NSCLC population using Ren’s research data (NCT03513666). Results. YAP1 was a poor prognostic factor of EGFR-mutant NSCLC population rather than lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. MR analysis revealed that the EGFR gene regulated YAP1 expression. YAP1 was identified as a hub gene closely associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment and poor prognosis in EGFR-mutant NSCLC population in TCGA LUAD. Tumors with YAP1_High showed an immune-“cold” and immunosuppressive phenotype, whereas those with YAP1_Low demonstrated an immune-“hot” and immunoactive phenotype. More importantly, it was verified that YAP1_High subpopulation had a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after ICIs treatment in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients in the clinical trial. Conclusions. YAP1 mediates immunosuppressive microenvironment and poor prognosis in EGFR-mutant NSCLC population. YAP1 is a novel negative biomarker of ICIs treatment in EGFR-mutant NSCLC population. Clinical Trials. This trial is registered with NCT03513666.