Upregulation of Potassium Voltage-Gated Channel Subfamily J Member 2 Levels in the Lungs of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary FibrosisRead the full article
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Asthma in Pregnancy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Whole-Course Management, and Medication Safety
Asthma in pregnancy is a health issue of great concern. Physiological changes and drug compliance during pregnancy can affect asthma control in varying degrees, and the control level of asthma and the side effects of asthma medications are closely related to the adverse perinatal outcomes of mother and fetus. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding the alleviating or aggravating mechanism of asthma in pregnancy, diagnosis, disease assessment, and systematic management, to provide a new guidance for physician, obstetric joint doctor, and health care practitioner.
High-Flow Nasal Cannula: A Promising Oxygen Therapy for Patients with Severe Bronchial Asthma Complicated with Respiratory Failure
Severe bronchial asthma complicated with respiratory failure, a common critical illness in respiratory medicine, may be life-threatening. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a novel oxygen therapy technique developed in recent years. HFNC was applied in this study for treating adult patients with severe bronchial asthma complicated with respiratory failure. Its efficacy was analyzed comparatively to conventional oxygen therapy (COT). HFNC and COT were randomly performed based on conventional treatment. The HFNC group was similar to COT-treated patients in terms of response rate, with no significant difference in efficacy between the two groups. In patients with bronchial asthma, effectively increased PO2 and reduced PCO2 were observed after treatment in both groups. However, HFNC was more efficient than COT in elevating PO2 in patients with severe bronchial asthma complicated with respiratory failure, while no statistically significant difference in PCO2 reduction was found between the two groups. Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) between the two groups on admission (0 h) and at 2, 8, 24, and 48 h after admission were compared. Both indicators significantly decreased with time. No significant differences in HR and RR were found between the groups at 0, 2, and 8 h after admission. However, these indicators were significantly lower in the HFNC group compared with the COT group at 24 and 48 h after admission. HFNC could significantly elevate PO2 and reduce HR and RR. Thus, it is a promising option for patients with severe bronchial asthma complicated with respiratory failure.
Normative Values for Londrina ADL Protocol in Healthy Individuals in Age Group of 40–60 Years among Indian Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Due to increase in the life expectancy and changes related to aging, it is important to assess ADL (activities of daily living) in older adults. However, there is no standardized protocol available to assess ADLs. Considering the limitations of the available tools, a new protocol named Londrina ADL protocol was developed for which normative values are unavailable in different ethnic groups. Objective. To develop the normative value and reference equation for the Londrina ADL protocol on the basis of anthropometric and demographic variables in healthy individuals in the age group of 40–60 years among the Indian population. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 282 healthy individuals of both the genders between the age group of 40 and 60 and they were divided into 2 groups: 40–49 and 50–60. Each subject was made to perform the Londrina ADL protocol twice with a 30 min interval between the two protocols. The protocol is composed of 5 activities and the best out of the 2 performances were recorded. Results. The mean time taken among 40–49 years by females is 3.50 ± 0.50 min and by males is 3.73 ± 0.43 min. The mean time taken among 50–60 years by females is 4.25 ± 0.20 min and by males is 4.36 ± 0.18 min. The reference equation to predict reference values for the Londrina ADL protocol was as follows: equation (1): Londrina ADL predicted = 1.205 + (0.054 × age (years)) + (0.001 × height (cm)); equation (2): Londrina ADL predicted = 1.374 + (0.054 × age (years)) + (−0.003 × BMI). Conclusion. The reference equation for the time to complete the Londrina ADL protocol was based on age and BMI as independent variables and can be useful for predicting the performance of healthy individuals.
MIP-T3 Expression Associated with Defects of Ciliogenesis in Airway of COPD Patients
Introduction. Some studies have found that cilia were shorter in COPD smokers than in nonsmokers or healthy smokers. However, the structural abnormalities of cilia and the cause of such abnormalities in COPD patients still remain unknown. Tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 3 interacting protein 1 (MIP-T3) may play an important role in the progress of ciliary protein transporting. Objectives. This study aimed at exploring the dominated structural abnormalities of cilia and the involvement of MIP-T3 in the pathogenesis of cilia of COPD patients. Methods. Patients who accepted pulmonary lobectomy were divided into 3 groups: the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) smoker group, the healthy smoker group, and the nonsmoker group, according to smoking history and pulmonary function. The ultrastructure of cilia and the percentage of abnormal cilia were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and western blotting in bronchial epithelium were used to determine MIP-T3 mRNA and protein expression. The relationship between the percentage of abnormal cilia and lung function and MIP-T3 protein expression was analyzed. Results. Patients in the COPD smoker group had increased percentage of abnormal cilia comparing to both the healthy smoker group and the nonsmoker group (both values <0.05). MIP-T3 expression was significantly declined in the COPD smoker group ( value <0.05). Moreover, the percentage of abnormal cilia was negatively correlated with FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and FEV1%pred (all values <0.05). Moreover, the MIP-T3 protein expression was positively correlated with the percentage of abnormal cilia ( value <0.05). Conclusions. Our results suggested that the abnormal ciliary ultrastructure, which was common in COPD patients, might be due to MIP-T3 downregulation.
Postinfectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans in Children: Diagnostic Workup and Therapeutic Options: A Workshop Report
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare, chronic form of obstructive lung disease, often initiated with injury of the bronchiolar epithelium followed by an inflammatory response and progressive fibrosis of small airways resulting in nonuniform luminal obliteration or narrowing. The term BO comprises a group of diseases with different underlying etiologies, courses, and characteristics. Among the better recognized inciting stimuli leading to BO are airway pathogens such as adenovirus and mycoplasma, which, in a small percentage of infected children, will result in progressive fixed airflow obstruction, an entity referred to as postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO). The present knowledge on BO in general is reasonably well developed, in part because of the relatively high incidence in patients who have undergone lung transplantation or bone marrow transplant recipients who have had graft-versus-host disease in the posttransplant period. The cellular and molecular pathways involved in PIBO, while assumed to be similar, have not been adequately elucidated. Since 2016, an international consortium of experts with an interest in PIBO assembles on a regular basis in Geisenheim, Germany, to discuss key areas in PIBO which include diagnostic workup, treatment strategies, and research fields.
Comparisons of Metabolic Load between Adaptive Support Ventilation and Pressure Support Ventilation in Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients
Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic load between adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) modes in critically ill patients. Methods. Sequential 20 min ventilation by PSV followed by 20 min ASV in critically ill patients was assessed. ASV was set for full support, i.e., with the minute volume control set at the same level as the minute volume observed during PSV. The trial started from PSV 8 cmH2O and continued with high (PSV 12 cmH2O) to low (PSV 0) conditions or low to high conditions, in random order. The oxygen consumption (), production of carbon dioxide (), and energy expenditure (EE) were measured by indirect calorimetry (IC). Results. Twenty-four patients with critical illness participated in the study. Comparing with the PSV mode, the EE in the ASV mode was lower in the level of PSV 0 cmH2O (1069 ± 73 vs. 1425 ± 76 kcal), PS 8 cmH2O (1116 ± 70 vs. 1284 ± 61 kcal), and PS 12 cmH2O (1017 ± 70 vs. 1169 ± 58 kcal) (). The , , and P0.1 in PSV were significantly higher than those in ASV (). Conclusion. In patients with critical illness, the application of ASV set for full support was associated with a lower metabolic load and respiratory drive than in any of the studied PSV conditions.