Canadian Respiratory Journal
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate15%
Submission to final decision101 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore3.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.470
Impact Factor2.409

Article of the Year 2021

A Follow-Up Study of Lung Function and Chest Computed Tomography at 6 Months after Discharge in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019

Read the full article

 Journal profile

Canadian Respiratory Journal provides a multidisciplinary forum for research in all areas of respiratory medicine. The journal publishes research related to asthma, allergy, COPD, non-invasive ventilation, therapeutic intervention etc.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Dr Alice M Turner, is based at the University of Birmingham, UK. Her main research interests are the clinical aspects of alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

 Special Issues

Do you think there is an emerging area of research that really needs to be highlighted? Or an existing research area that has been overlooked or would benefit from deeper investigation? Raise the profile of a research area by leading a Special Issue.

Latest Articles

More articles
Research Article

Clinical Outcome Discrimination in Pediatric ARDS by Chest Radiograph Severity Scoring

Background. There is no accurate radiological measurement to estimate the severity of pediatrics acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS). We validated the effectiveness of an adult radiographic assessment of lung edema (RALE) score in PARDS. Aim. To assess the severity and prognosis of PARDS based on a chest radiograph (CXR) RALE scoring method. Methods. Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) criteria were used to diagnose PARDS. General demographics, pulmonary complications, and 28‐day mortality of the patients were recorded. Subgroups were compared by prognosis (survive and death) and etiology (infection and noninfection). Two observers calculated RALE independently. Each quadrant of CXR was scored by consolidation scores 0 (none alveolar opacity), 1 (extent <25%), 2 (extent 25%–50%), 3 (50%–75%), and 4 (>75%) and density scores 1 (hazy), 2 (moderate), and 3 (dense). Quadrant score equals consolidation score times density score. Total score equals to the sum of four quadrants scores. The ROC curve and survival curve were established, and the optimal cutoff score for discrimination prognosis was set. Results. 116 PARDS (72 boys and 44 girls) and 463 CXRs were enrolled. The median age was 25 months (5 months, 60.8 months) and with a mortality of 37.9% (44/116). The agreement between two independent observers was excellent (ICC = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99). Day 3 score was independently associated with better survival (). The area under the curve of ROC was 0.773 (95% CI: 0.709–0.838). The cutoff score was 21 (sensitivity 71.7%, specificity 76.5%), and the hazard ratio (HR) was 9.268 (95% CI: 1.257–68.320). The pulmonary complication showed an HR of 3.678 (95% CI: 1.174–11.521) for the discrimination. Conclusion. CXR RALE score can be used in PARDS for discriminating the prognosis and has a better agreement among radiologist and pediatrician. PARDS with pulmonary complications, day 3 score whether greater than 21 points, have a better predictive effectiveness.

Research Article

Prognostic Role of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma Physiology Score for in-Hospital and 1-year Mortality in Patients with Acute Exacerbations of COPD

Background and Objectives: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) often lead to high mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma physiology score (CAPS) is a simple clinical severity score. The aim of this study was to explore whether CAPS could be an effective predictor for in-hospital and 1-year mortality in AECOPD patients. Methods. We used CAPS to grade all patients and record their clinical characteristics. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off of CAPS that discriminated survivors and non-survivors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and Cox regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors for in-hospital and 1-year mortality, respectively. Results. 240 patients were enrolled in our study; 18 patients died during hospitalization and 29 patients died during the 1-year follow-up. Compared with in-hospital survivors, those who died were older (80.83 ± 6.06 vs. 76.94 ± 8.30 years old, P = 0.019) and had a higher percentage of congestive heart failure (61.1% vs. 14.4%, P < 0.001), higher CAPS levels (31.11 ± 10.05 vs. 16.49 ± 7.11 points, P < 0.001), and a lower BMI (19.48 ± 3.26 vs. 21.50 ± 3.86, P = 0.032). The area under the ROC curve of CAPS for in-hospital death was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96) with a sensitivity of 0.889 and a specificity of 0.802 for a cut-off point of 21 points. CAPS ≥21 points was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality after adjustment for relative risk (RR) (RR = 13.28, 95% CI: 1.97–89.53, P = 0.008). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that a CAPS ≥21 points (HR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.97–8.44) was a risk factor for 1-year mortality. However, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CAPS (HR = 2.24, 95% CI: 0.90–5.53) was not associated with 1-year mortality. Conclusion: A CAPS ≥21 points was a strong and independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in AECOPD patients and CAPS had no impact on the 1-year mortality in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD after discharge.

Review Article

Early Identification, Accurate Diagnosis, and Treatment of Silicosis

Silicosis is a global problem, and it has brought about great burdens to society and patients’ families. The etiology of silicosis is clear, preventable, and controllable, but the onset is hidden and the duration is long. Thus, it is difficult to diagnose it early and treat it effectively, leaving workers unaware of the consequences of dust exposure. As such, a lack of details in the work history and a slow progression of lung disease contribute to the deterioration of patients until silicosis has advanced to fibrosis. These issues are the key factors impeding the diagnosis and the treatment of silicosis. This article reviews the literature on the early identification, diagnosis, and treatment of silicosis as well as analyzes the difficulties in the diagnosis and the treatment of silicosis and discusses its direction of future development.

Research Article

Smoking Cessation by Phone Counselling in a Lung Cancer Screening Program: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study

Introduction. Smoking cessation integration within lung cancer screening programs is challenging. Currently, phone counselling is available across Canada for individuals referred by healthcare workers and by self-referral. We compared quit rates after phone counselling interventions between participants who self-refer, those referred by healthcare workers, and those referred by a lung cancer screening program. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study of participants referred to provincial smoking cessation quit line in contemporaneous cohorts: self-referred participants, healthcare worker referred, and those referred by a lung cancer screening program if they were still actively smoking at the time of first contact. Baseline, covariates (sociodemographic information, smoking history, and history of mental health disorder) and quit intentions (stage of change, readiness for change, previous use of quit programs, and previous quit attempts) were compared among the three cohorts. Our primary outcome was defined as self-reported 30-day abstinence rates at 6 months. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify whether group assignment was associated with higher quit rates. Results. Participants referred by a lung cancer screening program had low quit rates (12%, 95% CI: 5–19) at six months despite the use of phone counselling. Compared to patients who were self-referred to the smoking cessation phone helpline, individuals referred by a lung cancer screening program were much less likely to quit (adjusted OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.17–0.8), whereas those referred by healthcare workers were twice as likely to quit (adjusted OR 2.16 (1.3–3.58)) even after adjustment for differences in smoking intensity and quit intentions. Conclusions. Phone counselling alone has very limited benefit in a lung cancer screening program. Participants differ significantly from those who are otherwise referred by healthcare workers. This study underlines the importance of a dedicated and personalized tobacco treatment program within every lung cancer screening program. The program should incorporate best practices and encourage treatment regardless of readiness to quit.

Research Article

Carboxyhemoglobin Does Not Predict the Need of Mechanical Ventilation and Prognosis during COPD Exacerbation

Background. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is a complex formed by the binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin in blood. Higher COHb levels have been associated with poor prognosis in a variety of pulmonary disorders. However, little is known regarding the prognostic significance of COHb among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. Methods. In a retrospective study, we evaluated associations of venous COHb levels on hospital admission with the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, in-hospital mortality, and rehospitalization, among 300 patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation in internal medical wards. Results. Rates of in-hospital death and 1-year recurrent hospitalizations were 11.0% and 59.6%, respectively. COHb levels were not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.82, , 95% CI 0.59–1.15) or with 1-year rehospitalizations (OR = 0.91, , 95% CI 0.79–1.04). The mean COHb level did not differ significantly between patients who needed invasive mechanical ventilation and those who were not invasively mechanically ventilated during the current hospitalization (2.01 ± 1.42% vs. 2.19 ± 1.68%, ). Conclusions. Among patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation in internal medicine wards, COHb levels on admission were not associated with invasive mechanical ventilation treatment, rehospitalizations, or mortality.

Research Article

Chitosan-Coated Solid Lipid Nano-Encapsulation Improves the Therapeutic Antiairway Inflammation Effect of Berberine against COPD in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Rats

Berberine (Ber) is an isoquinoline alkaloid that has shown therapeutic potential in mice with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the therapeutic efficiency of Ber is restricted by its low aqueous solubility and bioavailability. Chitosan and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have demonstrated great abilities as delivery systems in enhancing the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds. The present study aimed to get together the biological features of SLNs with the advantages of chitosan to formulate an efficient nano-carrier platform for the oral delivery of Ber and evaluate the therapeutic effect of the prepared Ber-encapsulated nanoparticles on airway inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD rats. The Ber-encapsulated SLE-chitosan formulation was manufactured using a modified solvent-injection method followed by a homogenization process. Physicochemical properties, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability and Ber release, and pharmacokinetics of the manufactured formulation were evaluated. The COPD rat model was developed by exposing animals to CS. To study the therapeutic efficiency of Ber-encapsulated SLE-chitosan nanoparticles and pure berberine, the histopathological changes of the lung tissues, levels of inflammatory cells and cytokines, and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Ber-encapsulated SLE-chitosan showed the particle size in nano-range with high stability and controlled slow-release profile in vitro in simulated gastric (pH 1.5) and intestinal (pH 6.8) fluids. Administration of Ber-loaded SLE-chitosan nanoparticles could significantly ameliorate inflammation scores in lung tissues and reduce levels of inflammatory cells (neutrophils and macrophages) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, Il-6, Il-17, and TNFα) in BALF when compared with the pure Ber. SLE-chitosan-based nanoparticles can strongly improve the therapeutic anti-inflammatory impact of Ber against CS-induced airway inflammation in COPD rats, suggesting the promising application of Ber-encapsulated SLN-chitosan nanoparticles for treating COPD and other inflammation-mediated diseases.

Canadian Respiratory Journal
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate15%
Submission to final decision101 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore3.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.470
Impact Factor2.409
 Submit

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.