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Canadian Respiratory Journal
Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 491-495
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2000/297045
Case Report

Hydroxyurea-Induced Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: A Case Report and Literature Review

Harminder S Sandhu,1 Penny J Barnes,2 and Paul Hernandez3

1Department of Anesthesia, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine;, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
3Respirology Division, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Copyright © 2000 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hydroxyurea is a cytotoxic agent indicated in the treatment of a variety of malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Apart from dose-related bone marrow suppression, this antineoplastic agent is generally well tolerated. This report describes a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia who developed severe pneumonitis within four weeks of beginning therapy with hydroxyurea. Pathological examination of a lung specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed extensive active alveolar and interstitial inflammation, and poorly formed granulomas. After the cessation of hydroxyurea and treatment with systemic corticosteroids, both clinical and radiological resolution of pneumonitis occurred. Physicians using hydroxyurea must be aware of its potentially life-threatening pulmonary toxicity.