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Canadian Respiratory Journal
Volume 2016, Article ID 9304505, 8 pages
Research Article

Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the CHAMPS Questionnaire in French Canadians with COPD

1School of Physical & Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1Y5
2Respiratory Epidemiology & Clinical Research Unit, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3H 2R9

Received 15 September 2015; Revised 5 May 2016; Accepted 9 May 2016

Academic Editor: Alberto Ruano-Ravina

Copyright © 2016 Susanne Mak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Physical activity is difficult to measure in individuals with COPD. The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire demonstrated strong clinometric properties when used with the elderly and with those affected by chronic disease. Study objectives were to translate, culturally adapt the CHAMPS into French, and reexamine its test-retest reliability and construct validity in French and English Canadians with COPD. This paper presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the CHAMPS; results of its clinometric testing will be described in another article. The CHAMPS examines the degree of physical activity performed in a typical week through two summary scales, caloric expenditure and activity frequency. The CHAMPS was only in English; thus, a cross-cultural adaptation was needed to translate the CHAMPS into French for use in French Canadians with COPD. Cross-cultural adaptation consisted of forward and back translation, with expert review at each stage of translation: minor inconsistencies were uncovered and rectified. Five French participants with COPD completed the finalized Canadian French CHAMPS and participated in cognitive debriefing; no problematic items were identified. A structured and stepwise, cross-cultural adaptation process produced the Canadian French CHAMPS, with items of equivalent meaning to the English version, for use in French Canadians with COPD.