Table 5: Sensitivity and specificity of abnormal BAL pepsin levels to diagnose GERD related infantile wheeze compared to the current standard diagnostic tests.

Abnormal pepsin levelAbnormal MII-pHReflux esophagitisLLMI ≥ 100

Positive predictive value%7244.848.3
Negative predictive value%43.47873.9

GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; LLMI, lipid laden macrophage index; MII-pH, multiple channel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring.