Values are expressed as means ± SD (FEV1: forced expiratory volume in the first second, FVC: forced vital capacity, PEF: peak expiratory flow, and FEF 25/75: forced expiratory flow 25% to 75%). : difference between the control group, before treatment of newly diagnosed COPD, and the exacerbation group; : difference between the control group, after treatment of newly diagnosed COPD, and the exacerbation group; < 0.05: difference from control, < 0.05: difference from before treatment of COPD, and < 0.05: difference from after treatment of COPD. and are findings via ANOVA whereas other symbols are findings by comparison of two groups.
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