Table 2: Causes of massive hemoptysis in recent studies.

StudyHemoptysis inclusion criteriaLocationnEtiology of hemoptysis, %
TBBronchiectasisLung CAMycetomaPneumoniaOthersIdiopathic

Bhalla et al. [33]>30 mL/dIndia646597NS119NS
Kiral et al. [29]>200 mL/dTurkey2032115203NS1922
Fartoukh et al. [34]ICU admissionFrance10872520176NS2018
Chan et al. [35]>200 mL/dHong Kong25142328.54.5553
Shigemura et al. [36]>600 mL/dChina6255236862NS
Valipour et al. [31]>150 mL/hAustria57238.535NSNS17.516
Ong and Eng [37]>300 mL/d or intubationSingapore291066714NS3NS
Revel et al. [32]>150 mL/dFrance801931117.5NS21.510
Hsiao et al. [30]Requiring bronchial arteriographyUSA2875714NSNS147
Lee et al. [28]Surgical resection consideredHong Kong5417574NSNS7.3NS

NS = not specified; 98% of the patients had more than 100 mL/day [33].