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Canadian Respiratory Journal
Volume 2018, Article ID 8739704, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8739704
Review Article

Chest Ultrasonography in Modern Day Extreme Settings: From Military Setting and Natural Disasters to Space Flights and Extreme Sports

1Department of Diagnostic Imaging, AUSL Romagna, S. Maria delle Croci Hospital, Ravenna, Italy
2Dipartmento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy
3Antwerpen University Research Centre for Equilibrium and Aerospace (AUREA), Antwerp, Belgium

Correspondence should be addressed to Francesco Feletti; gro.demtropsemertxe@ittelef

Received 25 August 2017; Revised 2 January 2018; Accepted 15 January 2018; Published 15 March 2018

Academic Editor: Christophe Leroyer

Copyright © 2018 Francesco Feletti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chest ultrasonography (CU) is a noninvasive imaging technique able to provide an immediate diagnosis of the underlying aetiology of acute respiratory failure and traumatic chest injuries. Given the great technologies, it is now possible to perform accurate CU in remote and adverse environments including the combat field, extreme sport settings, and environmental disasters, as well as during space missions. Today, the usage of CU in the extreme emergency setting is more likely to occur, as this technique proved to be a fast diagnostic tool to assist resuscitation manoeuvres and interventional procedures in many cases. A scientific literature review is presented here. This was based on a systematic search of published literature, on the following online databases: PubMed and Scopus. The following words were used: “chest sonography,” “ thoracic ultrasound,” and “lung sonography,” in different combinations with “extreme sport,” “extreme environment,” “wilderness,” “catastrophe,” and “extreme conditions.” This manuscript reports the most relevant usages of CU in the extreme setting as well as technological improvements and current limitations. CU application in the extreme setting is further encouraged here.