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Validation of the NoSAS Score for the Screening of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in a Sleep Clinic
Background. There is a growing number of patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) referred to sleep clinics. Therefore, a simple but useful screening tool is urgent. The NoSAS score, containing only five items, has been developed and validated in population-based studies. Aim. To evaluate the performance of the NoSAS score for the screening of SDB patients from a sleep clinic in China, and to compare the predictive value of the NoSAS score with the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Methods. We enrolled consecutive patients from a sleep clinic who had undergone apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) testing by type III portable monitor device at the hospital and completed the STOP-Bang questionnaire. The NoSAS score was assessed by reviewing medical records. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of both screening tools were calculated at different AHI cutoffs to compare the performance of SDB screening. Results. Of the 596 eligible patients (397 males and 199 female), 514 were diagnosed with SDB. When predicting overall (AHI ≥ 5), moderate-to-severe (AHI ≥ 15), and severe (AHI ≥ 30) SDB, the sensitivity and specificity of the NoSAS score were 71.2, 80.4, and 83.1% and 62.4, 49.3, and 40.7%, respectively. At all AHI cutoffs, the AUC ranged from 0.688 to 0.715 for the NoSAS score and from 0.663 to 0.693 for the STOP-Bang questionnaire. The NoSAS score had the largest AUC (0.715, 95% CI: 0.655–0.775) of diagnosing SDB at AHI cutoff of ≥5 events/h. NoSAS performed better in discriminating moderate-to-severe SDB than STOP-Bang with a marginally significantly higher AUC (0.697 vs. 0.663, ). Conclusion. The NoSAS score had good performance on the discrimination of SDB patients in sleep clinic and can be utilized as an effective screening tool in clinical practice.
Lifestyle and Sociodemographic and Economic Characteristics of Patients with Lung Cancer in Morocco
Background. Lifestyle maintenance is a crucial condition before and after lung cancer disease. According to the previous research in the scientific databases, the effect of the interaction between socioeconomic and demographic factors on the lifestyle of lung cancer patients in Southern Morocco regions remains unexamined. Accordingly, this study was designed to examine the relationship between socioeconomic factors, demographic factors, and the lifestyle of lung cancer patients. Methods. A total of 133 patients with lung cancer were divided into 103 men and 30 women with a sex ratio of 3.43 and ages varying between 28 and 82 years, and they served as informants for the study and filled in a questionnaire to provide information on their sociodemographic background, various economic characteristics, and their lifestyle. These patients have also been submitted to an anthropometric examination following the standardized procedure recommended by the World Health Organization. The survey was conducted from July 2013 to March 2015 at the Oncology and Radiotherapy Department, at Mohammed VI Hospital Center in Marrakech, Morocco. Results. The preliminary results showed that the average age of patients was 59 ± 9 years. A proportion of 81% lived in the Marrakech-Safi region and 19% lived in four other southern regions. Among the patients, 6% were smokers, while 14% were nonsmokers and 80% were ex smokers. Following the discovery of the disease, 26% revealed that they had sleep disorders and 98% were reported to have a lack of appetite. Obesity, normal weight, and underweight were also taken as criteria to categorize the patients; thus, obese informants represented 23% of the total number, those having normal weight reached 67% and the patients having underweight represented 10%. Conclusion. Sociodemographic variables and various economic characteristics were shown to have a negative impact on the lifestyle of lung cancer patients.
Nonadherence in Home-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program for COPD Patients
Background. The pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is beneficial for COPD patients. Due to the poor rate of adherence, we evaluate the factors which will predict the nonadherence of PR. Method. We analyzed the data from a retrospective study of COPD patients who were enrolled to attend the PR program. Patients were classified as the adherence group and the nonadherence group according to completion of over 50% sessions during the 8-week PR program. Demographic characteristics, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), COPD assessment test (CAT), modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC), and emotional function were compared between two groups. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the factors of poor adherence of PR. Results. Among 418 patients, 170 patients (40.7%) who completed less than 50% sessions of the PR program were categorized as “nonadherence.” Compared to completers, “nonadherence” patients had more cigarette consumption, higher emotional score, less 6MWD, more exacerbation, using nebulizer frequently, and higher rate of smoking at enrollment. On multivariate analysis, more exacerbation frequency (odds ratio (OR) = 1.434, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.191∼1.796, ) and smoking at enrollment (OR = 3.349, 95% CI: 1.194∼6.302, ) were predict factors associated with nonadherence of PR. Conclusion. COPD patients with frequent exacerbation and smoking currently were more likely to be nonadherence during PR.
Association of Tobacco Smoking with Physical Fitness of Military Males in Taiwan: The CHIEF Study
Tobacco smoking has been found associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in white and black males; however, few studies have not been conducted to clarify such relationship in Asian males. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between tobacco smoking status and physical fitness in 3,669 military males, averaged 29.4 years of age, from the cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces (CHIEF) study in Taiwan during 2014. There were 1,376 current smokers, and the others were noncurrent smokers. The effective sample size estimated was 1,230 participants, as the margin of error was ±3% at the 99% confidence level. Physical fitness was evaluated by time for a 3000-meter run test (aerobic fitness) and repetitive numbers of 2-minute sit-ups and 2-minute push-ups (anaerobic fitness) where all procedures were standardized by using computerized scoring systems. A multiple linear analysis adjusting for age, service specialty, body mass index, heart rate, alcohol intake, and training frequency was used to determine the relationship. As compared with noncurrent smoking, current smoking was inversely correlated with longer time for a 3000-meter run (β = 15.66 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 10.62, 20.70)) and fewer repetitive numbers of 2-minute sit-ups and 2-minute push-ups (β = −1.53 (95% CI: −2.08, −0.97) and −1.31 (95% CI: −2.12, −0.50), respectively). Our finding reconfirms the concept that tobacco smoking might reduce both aerobic and anaerobic fitness among young Asian males.
Comparison of Diagnostic Yield and Safety between Semirigid Pleuroscopic Cryobiopsy and Forceps Biopsy for Undiagnosed Pleural Effusion
For undiagnosed pleural effusion, diagnostic yields and safety were similar between pleuroscopic cryobiopsy and forceps biopsy, but cryobiopsy obtained a larger pleural tissue sample than forceps biopsy.
Accuracy of Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Pneumothorax: A Comparison between Neonates and Adults—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Objective. The present systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumothorax in neonates and adults. Method. The searches were conducted by two independent researchers (MS and HD) to find the relevant studies published from 01/01/2009 until the end of 01/01/2019. We searched for published literature in the English language in MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase™ via ovid, the Cochrane Library, and Trip database. For literature published in other languages, we searched national databases (Magiran and SID), KoreaMed, and LILACS, and we searched OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu/) and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry (http://who.int/ictrp) for unpublished literature and ongoing studies. The keywords used in the search strategy were pneumothorax or ultrasound or chest ultrasonography or neonate or adult or aerothorax or sensitivity or specificity or diagnostic accuracy. The list of previous study resources and systematic reviews was also searched for identifying the published studies (MS and HD). Analyses were performed using Meta-Disc 1.4. Results. In total, 1,565 patients (255 neonates, 1212 adults, and 101 pediatrics suspected of pneumothorax) were investigated in 10 studies. The overall specificity of chest ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumothorax in both populations of adults and neonates was 85.1% at the confidence interval of 95 percent (95% CI 81.1%–88.5%). At the confidence interval of 95 percent, the sensitivity was 98.6% (95% CI 97.7%–99.2%). The diagnostic odds ratio was 387.72 (95% CI 76.204–1972.7). For the diagnosis of pneumothorax in neonates, the ultrasound sensitivity was 96.7% at the confidence interval of 95 percent (95% CI 88.3%–99.6%). At the confidence interval of 95 percent, the specificity was 100% (95% CI 97.7%–100%). For the diagnosis of pneumothorax in adults, the ultrasound sensitivity was 82.9% at the confidence interval of 95 percent (95% CI 78.3–86.9%). At the confidence interval of 95 percent, the specificity was 98.2% (95% CI 97.0%–99.0%). The diagnostic odds ratio was 423.13 (95% CI 45.222–3959.1). Analyzing studies indicated that the sensitivity of “absence lung sliding” sign for the diagnosis of pneumothorax was 87.2% (95% CI 77.7–93.7), and specificity was 99.4% (95% CI 96.5%–100%). DOR was 556.74 (95% CI 100.03–3098.7). The sensitivity of “lung point” sign for the diagnosis of pneumothorax was 82.1% (95% CI 71.7%–89.8%), and the specificity was 100% (at the confidence interval of 95% CI 97.6%–100%). DOR was 298.0 (95% CI 58.893–1507.8). Conclusion. The diagnosis of pneumothorax using ultrasound is accurate and reliable; additionally, it can result in timely diagnoses specifically in neonatal pneumothorax. Using this method facilitates the therapy process; lack of ionizing radiation and easy operation are benefits of this imaging technique.