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Cardiology Research and Practice publishes original research articles and review articles focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, arrhythmia, heart failure, and vascular disease.
Dr. Terrence Ruddy is Director of Nuclear Cardiology at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, and Professor of Medicine and Radiology at the University of Ottawa. His research is in SPECT and PET imaging techniques in cardiovascular disease.
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Cardiac Outpouchings: Definitions, Differential Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Approach
Background and Aims. Cardiac outpouchings encounter a series of distinct congenital or acquired entities (i.e. aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, diverticula, and herniations), whose knowledge is still poorly widespread in clinical practice. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview focusing on definition, differential diagnosis, and prognostic outcomes of cardiac outpouchings, as well as further insights on therapeutic options, in order to assist physicians in the most appropriate decision-making. Methods. The material reviewed was obtained by the following search engines: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Clinical Trials databases, from January 1966 until March 2021. We searched for the following keywords (in title and/or abstract): (“cardiac” OR “heart”) AND (“outpouching” OR “outpouch” OR “aneurysm” OR “pseudoaneurysm” OR “false aneurysm” OR “diverticulum” OR “herniation”). Review articles, original articles, case series, and case reports with literature review were included in our search. Data from patients with congenital or acquired cardiac outpouchings, from prenatal to geriatric age range, were investigated. Results. Out of the 378 papers initially retrieved, 165 duplicates and 84 records in languages other than English were removed. Among the 129 remaining articles, 76 were included in our research material, on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: (a) papers pertaining to the research topic; (b) peer-reviewed articles; (c) using standardized diagnostic criteria; and (d) reporting raw prevalence data. Location, morphologic features, wall motion abnormalities, and tissue characterization were found to have a significant impact in recognition and differential diagnosis of cardiac outpouchings as well as to play a significant role in defining their natural history and prognostic outcomes. Conclusions. Careful recognition of cardiac outpouchings remains a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Due to a broad cluster of distinctive and heterogeneous entities, their knowledge and timely recognition play a pivotal role in order to provide the most appropriate clinical management and therapeutic approach.
Correlates of Delayed Initial Contact to Emergency Services among Patients with Suspected ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Background. Early diagnosis and treatment of a patient displaying symptoms of myocardial ischemia is paramount in preventing detrimental tissue damage, arrhythmias, and death. Patient-related hospital delay is the greatest considerable cause of total delay in treatment for acute myocardial infarction. Objective. To identify patient characteristics contributing to prehospital delay and ultimately developing health interventions to prevent future delay and improve health outcomes. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 287 patients diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was evaluated to examine correlates of patient-related delays to care. Results. Stepwise logistic regression modeling with forward selection (likelihood ratio) was performed to identify predictors of first medical contact (FMC) within 120 minutes of symptom onset and door-to-balloon (DTB) time within 90 minutes. Distance from the hospital, being unmarried, self-medicating, disability, and hemodynamic stability emerged as variables that were found to be predictive of FMC within the first 120 minutes after symptom onset. Similarly, patient characteristics of gender and disability and having an initial nondiagnostic electrocardiogram emerged as significant predictors of DTB within 90 minutes. Conclusions. Individual attention to high-risk patients and public education campaigns using printed materials, public lectures, and entertainment mediums are likely needed to disseminate information to improve prevention strategies. Future research should focus on identifying the strengths of prehospital predictors and finding other variables that can be established as forecasters of delay. Interventions to enhance survival in acute STEMI should continue as to provide substantial advances in overall health outcomes.
miR-149 Alleviates Ox-LDL-Induced Endothelial Cell Injury by Promoting Autophagy through Akt/mTOR Pathway
Background. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process that takes place in the vascular wall and causes various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Micro-RNA-149 (miR-149) mediates many physiological and pathological processes, including atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear about the roles of miR-149 in endothelial injury. Here, we explored the protective effect and related mechanism of miR-149 in endothelial cells induced with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Methods. Human endothelial cell lines (HUVECs) were exposed to ox-LDL to induce endothelial injury. Cell viability was determined by the CCK-8 assay. Autophagy was detected by immunofluorescence. RT-qPCR and western blot were carried out to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of Akt and mTOR. Results. The miR-149 level in HUVECs was reduced by ox-LDL (100 μg/mL) incubation in a time-dependent manner. miR-149-mimic transfection markedly protected HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced injury, with increased cell viability and reduced caspase-3 activity. miR-149 mimics enhanced HUVEC autophagy, which was induced initially by ox-LDL. miR-149 mimics also markedly downregulated the expression of Akt, p-Akt, mTOR, and p-mTOR in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. The miR-149-induced protection against HUVECs injury could be reversed by cotreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) or insulin (an activator of Akt/mTOR pathway). Conclusions. miR-149 prevents ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury by enhancing autophagy via increasing Akt and mTOR expressions.
High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Is a Risk Factor for Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality: A 9.5-Year Follow-Up Study
Background. The relationship between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and different cardiovascular events has been observed in several large community studies, and the results have been controversial. However, there is currently no cross-sectional or longitudinal follow-up study on hs-cTnT in the Chinese population. Methods. We analyzed the association of plasma hs-cTnT levels with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality in 1325 subjects from a longitudinal follow-up community-based population in Beijing, China. Results. In the Cox proportional hazards models analysis, the risk of MACEs increased with the increase of hs-cTnT levels (HR, 1.223, 95% CI, 1.054–1.418, ). Increased hs-cTnT levels were associated with coronary events (HR, 1.391, 95% CI, 1.106–1.749, ) in Model 4. Cox proportional risk regression model analysis revealed that increased hs-cTnT levels were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR, 1.763, 95% CI, 1.224–2.540, ), even after adjusting hs-CRP and NT-proBNP. The area under the ROC curve for predicting MACEs was 0.559 (95% CI, 0.523–0.595, ). The areas under the ROC curve for predicting coronary events and mortality were 0.629 (95% CI, 0.580–0.678, ) and 0.644 (95% CI, 0.564–0.725, ), respectively. Conclusions. Our findings in the Chinese cohort support that hs-cTnT is a risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.
Mortality and Its Associated Factors among Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients : The Case of South West Ethiopia
Background. Hospital case fatality among those with heart failure in Africa ranges from 9% to 12.5%. An integrated approach to identify those who are at high risk and implementing specific treatment strategies is of great importance for a better outcome. Objective. The aim of this study is to assess the mortality rate and its associated factors among hospitalized heart failure patients at the Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), south west Ethiopia. Method. A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted among 252 patients admitted with heart failure during the study period who were sampled and enrolled in to the study. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants by using their medical registration number as the sampling frame. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire. The collected data were entered into EpiData software and exported to SPSS version 20 for cleaning and analysis. A binary logistic regression model was used. Adjusted and crude odds ratio with 95% CI were used. A value less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. Results. The prevalence of in-hospital mortality was found to be 21.29%. Cardiogenic shock AOR: 0.016 (95% CI: 0.001–0.267), complication at admission AOR: 5.25 (95% CI: 1.28–21.6), and ejection fraction (<30) AOR: 0.112 (95% CI: 0.022–0.562) were found to be significantly associated factors. Conclusion. The in-hospital mortality rate among admitted heart failure patients is unacceptably high. Due emphasis should be given on the identified associated factors to reduce the mortality.
The Role of SGLT2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Aims. Recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown a significant prognostic benefit of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in the cardiovascular (CV) profile of patients with diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to provide a concise evaluation of all the available evidence for the use of these agents in patients with heart failure (HF) regardless of their baseline diabetes status. Methods and Results. PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched from inception until November 20th 2020. Eight studies consisting of 13,275 patients were included in the meta-analysis. For the total population, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75–0.91; I2 0%), hospitalisation for HF (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.61–0.75; I2: 0%), CV death (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74–0.92; I2: 0%), and hospitalisation for HF or CV death (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66–0.78; I2: 0%). Subgroup analyses of the total population according to the diabetes status showed that SGLT2 inhibitors significantly reduced the risk of hospitalisation for HF (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.75; I2: 0%), as well as the risk of hospitalisation for HF or CV death (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66, 078; I2: 0%) and CV death (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.91; I2: 0%). Conclusions. The results of this meta-analysis confirm the growing evidence in the literature of the favourable profile of SGLT2 inhibitors in cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with heart failure regardless of the baseline diabetes status. This systematic review has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021224777).