Article of the Year 2022
Distinguishing Cardiac Amyloidosis and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy by Thickness and Myocardial Deformation of the Right VentricleRead the full article
Cardiology Research and Practice publishes original research articles and review articles focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, arrhythmia, heart failure, and vascular disease.
Dr. Terrence Ruddy is Director of Nuclear Cardiology at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, and Professor of Medicine and Radiology at the University of Ottawa. His research is in SPECT and PET imaging techniques in cardiovascular disease.
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Evaluation of Left Atrial Function in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Using Left Atrial Automatic Myocardial Functional Imaging Ultrasonography
Aim. To evaluate volume and strain of the left atrium (LA) in people suffering from paroxysmal atrial fibrillation which is not valvular (NVPAF) using the new technology of left atrial automatic myocardial function imaging (AFILA) and to analyze prognostic factors in patients with NVPAF by follow-up. Methods. Between August 2019 and August 2022, a total of 80 NVPAF patients and 60 normal control patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Cardiology were included in the study. The LA volume and strain parameters of the two groups were analyzed. The differences in LA function (LAF) parameters were compared between the two groups to generate the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and calculate the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of each parameter. Follow-up was conducted on the 80 NVPAF patients included, their treatment methods after admission and their rehospitalization due to heart events were recorded, and independent risk factors influencing the prognosis of NVPAF were obtained. Results. A total of 140 patients participated in the study, including 80 in the NVPAF group and 60 in the normal control group. There was no statistically significant difference in age and sex between the two groups. Compared to the normal group, the LA minimum volume (LAVmin), LA maximum volume (LAVmax), and volume at onset of LA contraction (LAVpreA) in the NVPAF group were significantly increased. The LA emptying fraction (LAEF) was significantly decreased, and LA reservoir strain (S_R), LA conduit strain (S_CD), and LA contractile strain (S_CT) were significantly compromised ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in LA evacuation volume (LAEV) reduction ( > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis of LAF parameters in NVPAF patients showed that LAEF and S_R were independently correlated with NVPAF (odds ratio values: 0.883 (0.827–0.943), < 0.001; 0.916 (0.569–1.474), = 0.047). The ROC curve results showed that LAEF had a high efficiency in the diagnosis of NVPAF, with < 0.001, AUC of 0.843, sensitivity of 0.788, and specificity of 0.867. For the LA strain parameters, the S_R test efficiency was higher, with < 0.001, AUC of 0.762, sensitivity of 0.713, and specificity of 0.783. There was a strong correlation between S_R and LAEF in patients with no end event and those with end event. The ROC curve revealed that the S_R was better than LAEF in predicting prognosis of patients with AF (AUC = 0.914, < 0.0001 vs. AUC = 0.876, < 0.0001). S_R of 10.5 and LAEF of 21 were the cut-off values for endpoint events in NVPAF patients, with sensitivity of 0.909 and 0.727 and specificity of 0.904 and 0.901, respectively. Conclusions. AFILA ultrasound technology comprehensively evaluated the LA size and function in patients with NVPAF. The LAEF and S_R were independently correlated with NVPAF and can determine the prognosis of patients with NVPAF.
Complications of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and Their Potential Risk Factors in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Background. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has different complications such as cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Insertion of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is recommended for HCM patients who are at high risk of SCD and malignant arrhythmias, despite having their own potential complications. Hypothesis. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of different complications of ICD insertion and the impact of the potential influential baseline characteristics in a one-year follow-up period. Methods. This was a retrospective study with a total of 71 HCM patients with ICD insertion. We evaluated the prevalence of different complications of ICD implantation and the impact of baseline characteristics on the occurrence of ICD complications using multivariate regression analysis in three 4-month periods. Results. In a one-year follow-up, 13 patients (18.3%) experienced at least one of the complications including pneumothorax, lead failure, ICD infection, inappropriate shocks, perforation, and upper limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with no mortality. Inappropriate shocks were reported as the most common (11.3%) complication during this period, with a gradual increase in the second (4.2%) and third (5.6%) follow-up sessions. Among all of the baseline characteristics that were investigated in this study, a positive history of hypertension was the only risk factor with significant impact on the occurrence of complications ( = 0.01). Conclusion. We demonstrated the occurrence of complications during a one-year follow-up as 18.3% in HCM patients with ICD insertion. A positive history of hypertension was the only baseline characteristic affecting the occurrence of complications, and inappropriate shocks were the most common complication.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Postprocedure Depression in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation after Radiofrequency Ablation
Background. Recent studies have shown a bidirectional relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and psychological depression. However, little is known about the prevalence of postprocedure depression (PPD) in patients with AF at the time of radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Objective. To describe the prevalence and identify risk factors for PPD. Methods. This was a prospective cohort study, including 428 AF patients who were willing to undergo the first catheter ablation in our hospital from 1st April to 30th December 2019. The primary outcome was PPD, which was determined by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression. Results. The prevalence of PPD was 16.8% (72/428) in our cohort, without difference between men (16.0%, 41/256) and women (18.0%, 31/172) (P = 0.586) but with a great difference among different age groups (P = 0.016). On the univariable binary logistic regression analysis, age, a history of coronary heart disease, Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) score when ablating at the specific position, and OAA/S score when pulling out the catheter sheath were associated with PPD. Subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated only age (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99, ) and OAA/S score when ablating at the specific position (OR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.88, P = 0.01) were independently associated with PPD. Conclusion. PPD is common in patients with AF after RF ablation. Younger age and lower OAA/S score when ablating at the specific position are its most significant risk factors. Intensive management of sedation may be of great importance for reducing PPD. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2200057810).
Bachmann’s Bundle Modification in Addition to Circumferential Pulmonary Vein Isolation for Atrial Fibrillation: A Novel Ablation Strategy
Background. Bachmann’s bundle (BB) is the main pathway of interatrial connection that could be involved in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Based on this hypothesis, we raised a novel ablation strategy, BB modification in addition to circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI-BB) in patients with AF. Methods. A retrospective cohort of patients with AF who underwent CPVI-BB or CPVI alone from March 2018 to July 2021 was enrolled in our study. Propensity score matching was performed in patients with paroxysmal AF and persistent AF, respectively, to reduce the risk of selection bias between the treatment strategies (CPVI-BB or CPVI alone). The primary endpoint was overall freedom from atrial arrhythmia recurrence through 12 months of follow-up. Results. Our propensity score-matched cohort included 82 patients with paroxysmal AF (CPVI group: n = 41; CPVI-BB group: n = 41) and 168 patients with persistent AF (CPVI group: n = 84; CPVI-BB group: n = 84). Among patients with persistent AF, one-year freedom from atrial arrhythmia recurrence rate was 83.3% in the CPVI-BB group and 70.2% in the CPVI group (log-rank = 0.047). Among patients with paroxysmal AF, no significant difference was found in the primary endpoint between two groups (85.4% in the CPVI-BB group vs. 80.5% in the CPVI group; log-rank = 0.581). In addition, procedure-related complications and recurrence of atrial tachycardia or atrial flutter were similar between the two treatment groups, regardless of the type of AF. Conclusions. BB modification in addition to CPVI is an effective approach in increasing the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with persistent AF, while it does not improve the clinical outcomes of radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF.
Serum Galectin-3 Predicts Mortality in Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients
Objective. We investigated the potential use of galectin-3 (Gal-3) as a prognostic indicator for patients with cardiogenic shock and developed a predictive mortality model for venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). Methods. We prospectively studied patients (survivors and nonsurvivors) who received VA-ECMO for cardiogenic shock from 2019 to 2021. We recorded baseline data, Gal-3, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) before ECMO and 24–72 h after ECMO. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze significant risk factors and construct a VA-ECMO death prediction model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to assess the predictive efficacy of the model. Results. We enrolled 73 patients with cardiogenic shock who received VA-ECMO support; 38 (52.05%) died in hospital. The median age was 57 years (interquartile range (IQR): 48–67 years); the median duration of ECMO therapy was 5.8 days (IQR: 4.62–7.57 days); and the median intensive care unit stay was 19.04 days (IQR: 13.92–26.15 days). Compared with the nonsurvivors, survivors had lower acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores ( < 0.001), increased left ventricular ejection fraction ( < 0.05), lower Gal-3 levels at 24 and 72 h (both = 0.001), lower BNP levels at 24 and 72 h (both = 0.001), and higher platelet counts ( = 0.009). Further multivariable analysis showed that APACHE II score, BNP-T72, and Gal-3-T72 were independent risk factors for death in VA-ECMO patients. Gal-3 and BNP were positively correlated ( < 0.05) and decreased significantly during ECMO treatment. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) for APACHE II score, Gal-3-T72, and BNP-T72 were 0.687, 0.799, and 0.723, respectively. We constructed a combined prediction model with an AUC of 0.884 ( < 0.01). Conclusion. Gal-3 may serve as a prognostic indicator for patients receiving VA-ECMO for cardiogenic shock. The combined early warning score is a simple and effective tool for predicting mortality in VA-ECMO patients.
The Effect of Base Theory Educational Intervention on Health-Promoting Lifestyle in Women Susceptible to Cardiovascular Diseases: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior
Background. Cardiovascular diseases are the second leading cause of mortality, disability, and reduced productivity in women over 40 years and the first cause of mortality in women over 60 years. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) on health-promoting lifestyle in women susceptible to cardiovascular diseases. Methods. This quasiexperimental study was conducted on 200 women susceptible to cardiovascular diseases referred to health centers in Fasa city, Fars province, Iran. The available sampling was performed on women who referred to the centers and had a family record. In this study, two health-promoting lifestyle questionnaires consisting of 49 questions and the theory of planned behavior questionnaire consisting of 50 questions were used. The obtained data were analyzed by using the SPSS software version 24 in two stages before and six months after the educational intervention through paired t-test, independent t-test, chi-square test, and McNemar test. Results. The mean age of women in the experimental and control groups was 38.74 ± 9.22 and 39.14 ± 9.08 years, respectively. The results showed a significant increase in the experimental group after six months of intervention in terms of health-promoting lifestyle and constructs of the theory of planned behavior. Also, mean blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and smoking of experimental group decreased six months after the educational intervention. Conclusion. Considering the irreplaceable role of education in adopting healthy behaviors and the role of women in strengthening the family foundation, quality educational programs should be designed and regularly implemented by health care providers for women.