Applicability of a Novel Wearable Wireless Electrocardiogram Monitoring Device (Spyder) for Arrhythmia Detection in Patients with Suspected Cardiac ArrhythmiasRead the full article
Cardiology Research and Practice publishes original research articles and review articles focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, arrhythmia, heart failure, and vascular disease.
Dr. Terrence Ruddy is Director of Nuclear Cardiology at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, and Professor of Medicine and Radiology at the University of Ottawa. His research is in SPECT and PET imaging techniques in cardiovascular disease.
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Acute Occlusion of the Infarct-Related Artery as a Predictor of Very Long-Term Mortality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction
Aim. The survey’s aim was to examine the significance of infarct-related artery (IRA) occlusion (verified angiographically) on very long-term outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction, within the STEMI and NSTEMI diagnosis. Methods. A single-center, nonrandomized, registry-based study on patients treated for acute coronary syndrome with percutaneous coronary intervention between June 2011 and December 2016 was conducted. Patients with angiographically proven IRA occlusion (100% stenosis with TIMI flow 0 distal to occlusion) were categorized as occlusive myocardial infarction (OMI) and patients with patent IRA (50–99% stenosis with TIMI 1–3 flow) were categorized as nonocclusive myocardial infarction (NOMI) and very long-term outcomes were analyzed. Data were collected prospectively from the hospital’s PCI registry and the database of the Croatian Institute of Public Health. Results. A total of 2450 patients were included in the study. 796 (32.5%) patients had NOMI and 1654 patients (67.5%) had OMI. According to ECG changes, 1534 patients presented with STEMI (62,6%) and 916 with NSTEMI (37,8%). 88% of STEMI patients presented with OMI and 12% with NOMI, while patients with NSTEMI in 33,8% presented with OMI and in 66,81% with NOMI. A median follow-up was 4.7 years. There was no significant difference in cardiovascular mortality between the groups (14.8% vs 13.1%; OMI vs NOMI, respectively; ) neither in all-cause mortality (19% vs 21.5%; OMI vs NOMI, respectively; ). Patients with NSTEMI had a significantly higher very long-term mortality (21.6% vs 18.1%; NSTEMI vs STEMI, respectively; ). Conclusion. The main findings of the study are as follows: (1) total IRA occlusion was not associated with higher long-term mortality; (2) NSTEMI was associated with a higher mortality rate compared with STEMI, independent of angiographic presentation (OMI/NOMI); (3) IRA occlusion was not associated with significantly higher mortality rates in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI, respectively.
Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes: Artificial Intelligence-Augmented Propensity Score and Geospatial Cohort Analysis of 3,952 Patients
Introduction. Social disparities in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes are preventable, costly, and unjust. We sought to perform the first large artificial intelligence- (AI-) guided statistical and geographic information system (GIS) analysis of a multiyear and multisite cohort for OHCA outcomes (incidence and poor neurological disposition). Method. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected multicenter dataset of adult patients who sequentially presented to Houston metro area hospitals from 01/01/07-01/01/16. Then AI-based machine learning (backward propagation neural network) augmented multivariable regression and GIS heat mapping were performed. Results. Of 3,952 OHCA patients across 38 hospitals, African Americans were the most likely to suffer OHCA despite representing a significantly lower percentage of the population (42.6 versus 22.8%; ). Compared to Caucasians, they were significantly more likely to have poor neurological disposition (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.25–3.92; ) and be discharged to a facility instead of home (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.05–1.85; ). Compared to the safety net hospital system primarily serving poorer African Americans, the university hospital serving primarily higher income commercially and Medicare insured patients had the lowest odds of death (OR 0.45, ). Each additional $10,000 above median household income was associated with a decrease in the total number of cardiac arrests per zip code by 2.86 (95%CI -4.26- -1.46; ); zip codes with a median income above $54,600 versus the federal poverty level had 14.62 fewer arrests (). GIS maps showed convergence of the greater density of poor neurologic outcome cases and greater density of poorer African American residences. Conclusion. This large, longitudinal AI-guided analysis statistically and geographically identifies racial and socioeconomic disparities in OHCA outcomes in a way that may allow targeted medical and public health coordinated efforts to improve clinical, cost, and social equity outcomes.
Incremental Value of Genotype Bins over the HAS-BLED Score for the Prediction of Bleeding Risk in Warfarin-Treated Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
Background. This study aimed to analyse the role of the HAS-BLED score with the addition of genotype bins for bleeding risk prediction in warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods and Results. Consecutive patients with AF on initial warfarin treatment were recruited. For each patient, CYP2C93 and VKORC1-1639 A/G genotyping was performed to create 3 genotype functional bins. The predictive values of the HAS-BLED score with or without the addition of genotype bins were compared. According to the carrier status of the genotype bins, the numbers of normal, sensitive, and highly sensitive responders among 526 patients were 64 (12.17%), 422 (80.23%), and 40 (7.60%), respectively. A highly sensitive response was independently associated with clinically relevant bleeding (HR: 3.85, 95% CI: 1.88–7.91, ) and major bleeding (HR:3.75, 95% CI: 1.17–11.97, ). With the addition of genotype bins, the performance of the HAS-BLED score for bleeding risk prediction was significantly improved (c-statistic from 0.60 to 0.64 for clinically relevant bleeding and from 0.64 to 0.70 for major bleeding, ). Using the integrated discriminatory, net reclassification improvement, and decision curve analysis, the HAS-BLED score plus genotype bins could perform better in predicting any clinically relevant bleeding than the HAS-BLED score alone. Conclusions. Genotypes have an incremental predictive value when combined with the HAS-BLED score for the prediction of clinically relevant bleeding in warfarin-treated patients with AF.
NT-proBNP and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Received Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Prospective Cohort Study
Background. The prognostic significance of the amino-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been fully elucidated. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) are clinically viable indicators for the accurate, rapid, and safe evaluation of patients with STEMI. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between NT-proBNP levels and the occurrence of short-term MACEs in patients with STEMI who underwent emergency PCI. Methods. This prospective cohort study included 405 patients with STEMI aged 20–90 years who underwent emergency PCI at the First People’s Hospital of Changde City from April 6, 2017, to May 31, 2019. Stent thrombosis, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, unstable angina, and cardiac death were considered as MACEs in this study. The target-independent and -dependent variables were NT-proBNP at baseline and MACE, respectively. Results. There were 28.25% of MACEs. Age, number of implanted stents, Killip class, infarction-related artery, applied intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), creatine kinase (CK) peak value, CK-MB peak value, TnI peak value, and ST-segment resolution were independently associated with MACE (). In a multivariate model, after adjusting all potential covariates, Log2 NT-proBNP levels remained significantly associated with MACE, with an inflection point of 11.66. The effect sizes and confidence intervals of the left and right sides of the inflection point were 1.07 and 0.84–1.36 () and 3.47 and 2.06–5.85 (), respectively. Conclusions. In patients with STEMI who underwent PCI, Log2 NT-proBNP was positively correlated with MACE within 1 month when the Log2 NT-proBNP was >11.66 (NT-proBNP >3.236 pg/mL).
Clinical Characteristics and Long-Term Prognosis of Elderly Valvular Heart Disease Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Five-Year Experience from a Single-Center Study of Southern China
Background. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prognostic marker in elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases, but its predictive value in elderly valvular heart disease (VHD) patients is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of DM on the long-term outcome of elderly VHD patients. Methods. This single-center, observational study enrolled patients aged 65 and older consecutively with confirmed VHD using echocardiography. Patients, divided into the DM group and non-DM group, were followed up for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), including all-cause death, ischemic stroke, and heart failure rehospitalization. Results. Our study consisted of 532 patients over a median follow-up of 52.9 months. Compared with the non-DM group (n = 377), the DM group (n = 155) had higher incidences of ischemic stroke (25.2% vs. 13.5%, ), heart failure rehospitalization (37.4% vs. 20.7%, ), and MACCEs (60.0% vs. 35.8%, ). After adjustment of confounders by the multivariable cox regression, DM appeared as an independent predictor for MACCEs (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR: 1.88; 95% confidence interval 1.42–2.48; ). In the subgroup analysis of VHD etiology and functional style, conversely, DM was a protective factor for MACCEs in the patients with rheumatic VHD compared with those without rheumatic VHD (aHR: 0.43 vs. 2.27, ). Conclusions. DM was an independent predictor for ischemic stroke and heart failure rehospitalization in elderly VHD patients undergoing conservative treatment.
The Auxiliary Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Feature-Tracking Parameters in the Differentiation between Cardiac Amyloidosis and Constrictive Pericarditis
Objectives. Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) and constrictive pericarditis (CP) are described as the differential diagnoses of restrictive hemodynamic alterations of the heart. We aimed to explain cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging findings (especially feature tracking (FT)) of CA and CP cases and compare them with healthy controls. Moreover, we evaluated the role of biventricular FT parameters in differentiating CA from CP. Methods. Thirty-eight patients who underwent CMR between February 2016 and January 2018 with the ultimate diagnosis of CA (19 patients) or CP (19 patients) were enrolled. We included biopsy-proven light-chain amyloidosis patients. The data of 28 healthy controls were utilized for comparison. The patients were followed up for 8–23 months to register mortality and their surveillance. All CMR morphological and functional data, including FT parameters, were recorded and analyzed. Results. Of only 13/19 (68.4%) CA patients who had the follow-up data, 11/13 (84.6%) died. One of The CP patients (5.3%) expired during the follow-up. Significant between-group differences were noted concerning the biventricular ejection fraction as well as global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain values (). The left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) ≤10% was detected in 13/19 (68.4%) of the CA and 1/19 (5.3%) of CP cases (). A significant difference between the mean value of the LVGLS and LV global circumferential strain (GCS) of the basal LV level compared to the mid and apical levels was observed () in the CA patients. The differences between the mean LVGLS and the GCS measures of the mid and apical LV levels were not significant ( and , respectively). Conclusions. In our study, CA and CP severely disrupted ventricular strains. Biventricular GLS was meaningfully lower in the CA subjects. Therefore, strain analysis, especially in the longitudinal direction, could be helpful to differentiate CA from CP.