Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 134564, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/134564
Review Article

Impact of Medical Therapy on Atheroma Volume Measured by Different Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities

Heart and Vascular Institute, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA

Received 22 March 2010; Accepted 25 May 2010

Academic Editor: Chim Choy Lang

Copyright © 2010 Mohamad C. N. Sinno and Mouaz Al-Mallah. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Wittes, E. Lakatos, and J. Prostfield, “Surrogate endpoints in clinical trials: cardiovascular diseases,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 415–425, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Loscalzo, “Clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine in an era of marginal benefit, bias, and hyperbole,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 20, pp. 3026–3029, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Böse, C. von Birgelen, and R. Erbel, “Intravascular ultrasound for the evaluation of therapies targeting coronary atherosclerosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 925–932, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Waters, T. E. Craven, and J. Lesperance, “Prognostic significance of progression of coronary atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1067–1075, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. L. Willis, B. Nagel, and V. Churchill, “Antiatherosclerotic effects of nicardipine and nifedipine in cholesterol-fed rabbits,” Arteriosclerosis, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 250–255, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. Waters, J. Lesperance, M. Francetich et al., “A controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of a calcium channel blocker on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1940–1953, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. O. Borhani, “MIDAS: rationale, design and descriptive data of trial patients. The MIDAS Research Group,” Blood Pressure, Supplement, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. O. Borhani, S. B. Brugger, and R. P. Byington, “Multicenter study with isradipine and diuretics against atherosclerosis. US MIDAS Research Group,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 15, supplement 1, pp. S23–S29, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  9. G. B. J. Mancini, “Overview of the prospective randomized evaluation of the vascular effects of Norvasc (amlodipine) trial: PREVENT,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 16, supplement D, pp. 5D–7D, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Zanchetti, E. Agabiti Rosei, C. Dal Palù, G. Leonetti, B. Magnani, and A. Pessina, “The Verapamil in Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Study (VHAS): results of long-term randomized treatment with either verapamil or chlorthalidone on carotid intima-media thickness,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1667–1676, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Zannad, “Effects of calcium antagonists on the progression of atherosclerosis and intima media thickness,” Drugs, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 39–46, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Thaulow and B. Jørgensen, “Results and clinical implications of the CAPARES trial,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 16, supplement D, pp. 8D–11D, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. J. Brener, T. B. Ivanc, R. Poliszczuk et al., “Antihypertensive therapy and regression of coronary artery disease: insights from the comparison of Amlodipine versus Enalapril to Limit Occurrences of Thrombosis (CAMELOT) and Norvasc for Regression of Manifest Atherosclerotic Lesions by Intravascular Sonographic Evaluation (NORMALISE) trials,” American Heart Journal, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 1059–1063, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. E. Nissen, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Schoenhagen et al., “Effect of intensive compared with moderate lipid-lowering therapy on progression of coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 9, pp. 1071–1080, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. MacMahon, N. Sharpe, G. Gamble et al., “Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in patients with coronary or other occlusive arterial disease—part-2: Collaborative Research Group. Prevention of Atherosclerosis with Ramipril,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 438–443, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. M. Lonn, S. Yusuf, V. Dzavik et al., “Effects of ramipril and vitamin E on atherosclerosis: the study to evaluate carotid ultrasound changes in patients treated with ramipril and vitamin E (SECURE),” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 919–925, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Cashin-Hemphill, G. Holmvang, R. C. Chan, B. Pitt, R. E. Dinsmore, and R. S. Lees, “Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition as antiatherosclerotic therapy: no answer yet. QUIET Investigators,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. K. Teo, J. R. Burton, C. E. Buller et al., “Long-term effects of cholesterol lowering and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on coronary atherosclerosis: the Simvastatin/Enalapril Coronary Atherosclerosis Trial (SCAT),” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 15, pp. 1748–1754, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Takai and M. Miyazaki, “Effect of olmesartan medoxomil on atherosclerosis: clinical implications of the emerging evidence,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 363–366, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. O. Stumpe, E. Agabiti-Rosei, T. Zielinski et al., “Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque volume changes following 2-year angiotensin II-receptor blockade. The Multicentre Olmesartan atherosclerosis Regression Evaluation (MORE) study,” Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Waseda, Y. Ozaki, H. Takashima et al., “Impact of angiotensin II receptor blockers on the progression and regression of coronary atherosclerosis—an intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation Journal, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 1111–1115, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. “A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction. I. Mortality results,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 247, no. 12, pp. 1707–1714, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Olsson, N. Rehnqvist, and A. Sjogren, “Long-term treatment with metoprolol after myocardial infarction: effect on 3 year mortality and morbidity,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1428–1437, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. G. Julian, F. S. Jackson, P. Szekely, and R. J. Prescott, “A controlled trial of sotalol for 1 year after myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 67, no. 6, part 2, pp. I-61–I-62, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. “Timolol-induced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 304, no. 14, pp. 801–807, 1981. View at Scopus
  26. I. Sipahi, E. M. Tuzcu, K. E. Wolski et al., “β-blockers and progression of coronary atherosclerosis: pooled analysis of 4 intravascular ultrasonography trials,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 10–18, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. E. Nissen, E. M. Tuzcu, H. B. Brewer et al., “Effect of ACAT inhibition on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 12, pp. 1253–1263, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. E. Nissen, S. J. Nicholls, I. Sipahi et al., “Effect of very high-intensity statin therapy on regression of coronary atherosclerosis: the ASTEROID trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 13, pp. 1556–1565, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. E. Nissen, E. M. Tuzcu, P. Libby et al., “Effect of antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure. The CAMELOT study: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 18, pp. 2217–2226, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. T. Stier Jr., P. N. Chander, and R. Rocha, “Aldosterone as a mediator in cardiovascular injury,” Cardiology in Review, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 97–107, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Duprez, M. De Buyzere, E. R. Rietzschel, and D. L. Clement, “Aldosterone and vascular damage,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 327–334, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Takai, D. Jin, M. Muramatsu, K. Kirimura, H. Sakonjo, and M. Miyazaki, “Eplerenone inhibits atherosclerosis in nonhuman primates,” Hypertension, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1135–1139, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Von Birgelen, M. Hartmann, G. S. Mintz, D. Baumgart, A. Schmermund, and R. Erbel, “Relation between progression and regression of atherosclerotic left main coronary artery disease and serum cholesterol levels as assessed with serial long-term (≥12 months) follow-up intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 22, pp. 2757–2762, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. P. Azen, W. J. Mack, L. Cashin-Hemphill et al., “Progression of coronary artery disease predicts clinical coronary events: long-term follow-up from the cholesterol lowering atherosclerosis study,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. G. Brown, X.-Q. Zhao, A. Chait et al., “Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 22, pp. 1583–1592, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Okazaki, T. Yokoyama, K. Miyauchi et al., “Early statin treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome: demonstration of the beneficial effect on atherosclerotic lesions by serial volumetric intravascular ultrasound analysis during half a year after coronary event: the ESTABLISH study,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 1061–1068, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Matsuzaki, K. Hiramori, T. Imaizumi et al., “Intravascular ultrasound evaluation of coronary plaque regression by low density lipoprotein-apheresis in familial hypercholesterolemia: the Low Density Lipoprotein-Apheresis Coronary Morphology and Reserve Trial (LACMART),” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 220–227, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. M. Ballantyne, J. S. Raichlen, S. J. Nicholls et al., “Effect of rosuvastatin therapy on coronary artery stenoses assessed by quantitative coronary angiography: a study to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on intravascular ultrasound-derived coronary atheroma burden,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 19, pp. 2458–2466, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Schartl, W. Bocksch, D. H. Koschyk et al., “Use of intravascular ultrasound to compare effects of different strategies of lipid-lowering therapy on plaque volume and composition in patients with coronary artery disease,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 387–392, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. J. P. Kastelein, F. Akdim, E. S. G. Stroes et al., “Simvastatin with or without ezetimibe in familial hypercholesterolemia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 14, pp. 1431–1443, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. L. Fleg, M. Mete, B. V. Howard et al., “Effect of statins alone versus statins plus ezetimibe on carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes: the SANDS (Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study) trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 25, pp. 2198–2205, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. R. Crouse III, D. E. Grobbee, D. H. O'Leary et al., “Measuring effects on intima media thickness: an evaluation of rosuvastatin in subclinical atherosclerosis—the rationale and methodology of the METEOR study,” Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 231–238, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. J. Taylor, T. C. Villines, E. J. Stanek et al., “Extended-release niacin or ezetimibe and carotid intima-media thickness,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 22, pp. 2113–2122, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. “Effect of fenofibrate on progression of coronary-artery disease in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study, a randomised study,” Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9260, pp. 905–910, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Hiukka, J. Westerbacka, E. S. Leinonen et al., “Long-term effects of fenofibrate on carotid intima-media thickness and augmentation index in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 25, pp. 2190–2197, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Zhu, G. Su, and Q. H. Meng, “Inhibitory effects of micronized fenofibrate on carotid atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2036–2042, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. S. Elkeles, J. R. Diamond, C. Poulter et al., “Cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a double-blind placebo- controlled study of bezafibrate: the St. Mary's, Ealing, Northwick Park Diabetes Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (SENDCAP) Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 641–648, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. J. Nicholls, I. Sipahi, P. Schoenhagen et al., “Intravascular ultrasound assessment of novel antiatherosclerotic therapies: rationale and design of the Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Intravascular Atherosclerosis Treatment Evaluation (ACTIVATE) Study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, J. Lespérance et al., “Design features of the Avasimibe and Progression of coronary Lesions assessed by intravascular UltraSound (A-PLUS) clinical trial,” American Heart Journal, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 589–596, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L'Allier et al., “Effects of the acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor avasimibe on human atherosclerotic lesions,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 21, pp. 3372–3377, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Ameli, A. Hultgardh-Nilsson, B. Cercek et al., “Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano reduces intimal thickening after balloon injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits,” Circulation, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 1935–1941, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. E. Nissen, T. Tsunoda, E. M. Tuzcu et al., “Effect of recombinant ApoA-I Milano on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 17, pp. 2292–2300, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. J. Davies, P. D. Richardson, N. Woolf, D. R. Katz, and J. Mann, “Risk of thrombosis in human atherosclerotic plaques: role of extracellular lipid, macrophage, and smooth muscle cell content,” British Heart Journal, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 377–381, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. N. Leitinger, A. D. Watson, S. Y. Hama et al., “Role of group II secretory phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis: 2. Potential involvement of biologically active oxidized phospholipids,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1291–1298, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. J. Packard, D. S. J. O'Reilly, M. J. Caslake et al., “Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 16, pp. 1148–1155, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. N. Hodis, W. J. Mack, L. LaBree et al., “Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS),” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 1453–1459, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. M. Salonen, K. Nyyssönen, J. Kaikkonen et al., “Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 947–953, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. Behrendt, J. Beltrame, H. Hikiti et al., “Impact of coronary endothelial function on the progression of cardiac transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: effect of anti-oxidant vitamins C and E,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 426–433, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. C. Fang, S. Kinlay, J. Beltrame et al., “Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial,” Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9312, pp. 1108–1113, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. L. Nunes, A. C. Abizaid, M. P. Theodoro et al., “Role of probucol in inhibiting intimal hyperplasia after coronary stent implantation: a randomized study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 914.e1–914.e7, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, L. Schwartz et al., “Effects of AGI-1067 and probucol after percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 552–558, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L'Allier et al., “Effects of the antioxidant succinobucol (AGI-1067) on human atherosclerosis in a randomized clinical trial,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 480–486, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J.-P. Després, A. Golay, and L. Sjöström, “Effects of rimonabant on metabolic risk factors in overweight patients with dyslipidemia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 20, pp. 2121–2134, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F. X. Pi-Sunyer, L. J. Aronne, H. M. Heshmati, J. Devin, and J. Rosenstock, “Effect of rimonabant, a cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, on weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese patients—RIO-North America: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 7, pp. 761–775, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. J. Scheen, “Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists in type-2 diabetes,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 535–553, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. F. Van Gaal, A. M. Rissanen, A. J. Scheen, O. Ziegler, and S. Rössner, “Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study,” Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9468, pp. 1389–1397, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. E. Nissen, S. J. Nicholls, K. Wolski et al., “Effect of rimonabant on progression of atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal obesity and coronary artery disease: the STRADIVARIUS randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 13, pp. 1547–1560, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. E. Nissen, S. J. Nicholls, K. Wolski et al., “Comparison of pioglitazone vs glimepiride on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: the PERISCOPE randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 13, pp. 1561–1573, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Mazzone, P. M. Meyer, S. B. Feinstein et al., “Effect of pioglitazone compared with glimepiride on carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 296, no. 21, pp. 2572–2581, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus