Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 394740, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/394740
Review Article

Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients

1University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, UK
2Department of Biomedical Science & Physiology, School of Applied Sciences, Research Institute in Healthcare Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1AD, UK

Received 22 October 2010; Accepted 4 January 2011

Academic Editor: Syed Wamique Yusuf

Copyright © 2011 Andrew D. Blann and Simon Dunmore. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, “Annex Table 2: deaths by cause, sex and mortality stratum in WHO regions, estimates for 2002,” The world health report 2004—changing history, 2004, http://www.who.int/entity/whr/2004/annex/topic/en/annex_2_en.pdf.
  2. A. D. Blann, “How a damaged blood vessel wall contibutes to thrombosis and hypertension,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 33, no. 5-6, pp. 445–448, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. J. Kaplan, “Cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 289–297, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Trousseau, “Phlegmasia alba dolens,” Clinique Medicale de l’Hotel Dieu de Paris, vol. 3, pp. 654–712, 1865, translated by the New Sydenham Society, London as ‘Lectures on Clinical Medicine delivered at the Hotel Dieu de Paris’, pp. 281–95, 1872. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. H. Sack Jr., J. Levin, and W. R. Bell, “Trousseau's syndrome and other manifestations of chronic disseminated coagulopathy in patients with neoplasms: clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic features,” Medicine, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1–37, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Y. H. Lip, B. S. P. Chin, and A. D. Blann, “Cancer and the prothrombotic state,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Doni, G. Lippi, G. Leoncini, S. Fedi, G. Gabbrielli, and C. Piovanelli, “Hemostatic disorders in 25 patients with limited and uncomplicated thyroid and breast cancer: prophylactic and therapeutic considerations,” Chemioterapia, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 90–96, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. R. Rickles, M. Levine, and R. L. Edwards, “Hemostatic alterations in cancer patients,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 11, no. 3-4, pp. 237–248, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Prandoni, “Antithrombotic strategies in patients with cancer,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 141–144, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Saphner, D. C. Tormey, and R. Gray, “Venous and arterial thrombosis in patients who received adjuvant therapy for breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 286–294, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Yamamoto, S. Noguchi, K. Miyauchi et al., “Changes in hematologic parameters during treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate for breast cancer,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 420–425, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. A. Khorana, C. W. Francis, E. Culakova, N. M. Kuderer, and G. H. Lyman, “Thromboembolism is a leading cause of death in cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 632–634, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Virchow, Gesammalte Abhandlungen zur Wissenschaftlichen Medtzin, Medinger Sohn, Frankfurt, Germany, 1856.
  14. A. D. Blann and G. Y. H. Lip, “Virchow's triad revisited: the importance of soluble coagulation factors, the endothelium, and platelets,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 321–327, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Dube, M. N. Khanna, and B. J. Kulkarni, “Changes in platelets of cancer patients,” American Surgeon, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 651–655, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. F. Abrahamsen, “Platelet turnover in metastatic cancer and the effect of platelet aggregation inhibitors,” Zeitschrift fur Krebsforschung und Klinische Onkologie, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 109–111, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Fritz, H. Ludwig, W. Scheithauer, and H. Sinzinger, “Shortened platelet half-life in multiple myeloma,” Blood, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 514–520, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. J. Scialla, S. F. Speckart, M. J. Haut, and D. B. Kimball, “Alterations in platelet surface sialyltransferase activity and platelet aggregation in a group of cancer patients with a high incidence of thrombosis,” Cancer Research, vol. 39, no. 6 I, pp. 2031–2035, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. D. Blann, D. Gurney, M. Wadley, D. Bareford, P. Stonelake, and G. Y. H. Lip, “Increased soluble P-selectin in patients with haematological and breast cancer: a comparison with fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. A. Lane, H. Ireland, S. Wolff, E. Ranasinghe, and J. Dawes, “Detection of enhanced in vivo platelet α-granule release in different patient groups—comparison of β-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4 and thrombospondin assays,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 183–187, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  21. R. Landolfi, S. Storti, F. Sacco, D. Scribano, L. Cudillo, and G. Leone, “Platelet activation in patients with benign and malignant ovarian diseases,” Tumori, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 459–462, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  22. P. B. Panici, G. Scambia, B. Massidda, P. Chessa, A. Tarquini, and S. Mancuso, “Elevated plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin in breast cancer,” Oncology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 208–211, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. Jain, D. C. Tabor, and J. C. Engle, “Plasma β-thromboglobulin levels in lung cancer,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1380–1382, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Schernthaner, H. Ludwig, and K. Silberbauer, “Elevated plasma β-thromboglobulin levels in multiple myeloma and in polycythaemia vera,” Acta Haematologica, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 219–222, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. J. Farrell, M. J. Duffy, M. J. Moriarty, and G. J. Duffy, “Plasma concentrations of the platelet-specific β-thromboglobulin in malignant disease,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 989–991, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Al-Mondhiry, A. Manni, J. Owen, and R. Gordon, “Hemostatic effects of hormonal stimulation in patients with metastatic prostate cancer,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 141–145, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Mehta, “Potential role of platelets in the pathogenesis of tumor metastasis,” Blood, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. J. Gasic, “Role of plasma, platelets, and endothelial cells in tumor metastasis,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 99–114, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Bastida and A. Ordinas, “Platelet contribution to the formation of metastatic foci: the role of cancer cell-induced platelet activation,” Haemostasis, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. A. Walz, “Thrombospondin as a mediator of cancer cell adhesion in metastasis,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 11, no. 3-4, pp. 313–324, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. V. Honn, D. G. Tang, and J. D. Crissman, “Platelets and cancer metastasis: a causal relationship?” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 11, no. 3-4, pp. 325–351, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Grignani and G. A. Jamieson, “Tissue factor-dependent activation of platelets by cells and microvesicles of SK-OS-10 human osteogenic sarcoma cell line,” Invasion and Metastasis, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 172–182, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. D. Scarlett, P. J. Thurlow, J. M. Connellan, and C. J. Louis, “Plasma-dependent and -independent mechanisms of platelet aggregation induced by human tumour cell lines,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 715–726, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. M. Pulcinelli, G. Manzari, A. Faggioni et al., “Differential platelet proaggregating activity of three Burkitt's lymphoma-derived human cell lines,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 62, no. 1-2, pp. 9–22, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. G. Lampugnani and N. Crawford, “Tumour-cell-induced platelet aggregation: studies with cloned metastatic and non-metastatic variants,” Invasion and Metastasis, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 311–324, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Grignani and G. A. Jamieson, “Platelets in tumor metastasis: generation of adenosine diphosphate by tumor cells is specific but unrelated to metastatic potential,” Blood, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 844–849, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Canobbio, T. Fassio, A. Ardizzoni et al., “Hypercoagulable state induced by cytostatic drugs in Stage II breast cancer patients,” Cancer, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1032–1036, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  38. E. Sierko and M. Z. Wojtukiewicz, “Inhibition of platelet function: does it offer a chance of better cancer progression control?” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 712–721, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. Borsig, “The role of platelet activation in tumor metastasis,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1247–1255, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Ho-Tin-Noé, T. Goerge, and D. D. Wagner, “Platelets: guardians of tumor vasculature,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 14, pp. 5623–5626, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. V. L. Serebruany, “Aggressive chronic platelet inhibition with prasugrel and increased cancer risks: revising oral antiplatelet regimens?” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 411–417, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Blann, E. Shantsila, and A. Shantsila, “Microparticles and arterial disease,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 488–496, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Amin, N. MacKman, and N. S. Key, “Microparticles and cancer,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 36, no. 3-4, pp. 177–183, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Toth, S. Liebhardt, K. Steinig et al., “Platelet-derived microparticles and coagulation activation in breast cancer patients,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 663–669, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Hron, M. Kollars, H. Weber et al., “Tissue factor-positive microparticles: cellular origin and association with coagulation activation in patients with colorectal cancer,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 119–123, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. K. Kim, K. S. Song, Y. S. Park et al., “Elevated levels of circulating platelet microparticles, VEGF, IL-6 and RANTES in patients with gastric cancer: possible role of a metastasis predictor,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 184–191, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. D. Varon and E. Shai, “Role of platelet-derived microparticles in angiogenesis and tumor progression,” Discovery Medicine, vol. 8, no. 43, pp. 237–241, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. K. Kim, K. S. Song, J. H. Chung, K. R. Lee, and SE. N. Lee, “Platelet microparticles induce angiogenesis in vitro,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 376–384, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. Langer, B. Spath, K. Haubold et al., “Tissue factor procoagulant activity of plasma microparticles in patients with cancer-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 451–457, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. E. T. Tesselaar, F. P. H. T. M. Romijn, I. K. Van Der Linden, R. M. Bertina, and S. Osanto, “Microparticle-associated tissue factor activity in cancer patients with and without thrombosis,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1421–1423, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. O. Dashevsky, D. Varon, and A. Brill, “Platelet-derived microparticles promote invasiveness of prostate cancer cells via upregulation of MMP-2 production,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 124, no. 8, pp. 1773–1777, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. M. Thomas, L. Panicot-Dubois, R. Lacroix, F. Dignat-George, D. Lombardo, and C. Dubois, “Cancer cell-derived microparticles bearing P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 accelerate thrombus formation in vivo,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 206, no. 9, pp. 1913–1927, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. I. Zwicker, H. A. Liebman, D. Neuberg et al., “Tumor-derived tissue factor-bearing microparticles are associated with venous thromboembolic events in malignancy,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 22, pp. 6830–6840, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Baran, M. Baj-Krzyworzeka, K. Weglarczyk et al., “Circulating tumour-derived microvesicles in plasma of gastric cancer patients,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 841–850, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. B. Chomet, J. LaPorte, and E. A. McGrew, “Atypical monocytes in patients with malignant tumors,” Acta Cytologica, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 197–199, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. Samak, R. Edelstein, D. Bogucki, M. Samak, and L. Israël, “Testing the monocyte-macrophage system in human cancer,” Biomedicine, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 165–169, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Bartholeyns, “Monocytes and macrophages in cancer immunotherapy,” Research in Immunology, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 288–291, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. Morgan, R. L. Edwards, and F. R. Rickles, “Monocyte procoagulant activity as a peripheral marker of clotting activation in cancer patients,” Haemostasis, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 55–65, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. Østerud, “Tissue factor expression by monocytes: regulation and pathophysiological roles,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. S9–S14, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. B. A. Lwaleed, P. S. Bass, and A. J. Cooper, “The biology and tumour-related properties of monocyte tissue factor,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. N. Mackman, “Role of tissue factor in hemostasis and thrombosis,” Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 104–107, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Grignani and A. Maiolo, “Cytokines and hemostasis,” Haematologica, vol. 85, no. 9, pp. 967–972, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. E. Lewis, M. De Palma, and L. Naldini, “Tie2-expressing monocytes and tumor angiogenesis: regulation by hypoxia and angiopoietin-2,” Cancer Research, vol. 67, no. 18, pp. 8429–8432, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Kanazawa, S. Nomura, M. Kuwana, M. Muramatsu, K. Yamaguchi, and S. Fukuhara, “Monocyte-derived microparticles may be a sign of vascular complication in patients with lung cancer,” Lung Cancer, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 145–149, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Amirkhosravi, M. Alexander, K. May et al., “The importance of platelets in the expression of monocyte tissue factor antigen measured by a new whole blood flow cytometric assay,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. R. Rickles, “Mechanisms of cancer-induced thrombosis,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. P103–P110, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. L. Nachman and R. Silverstein, “Hypercoagulable states,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 119, no. 8, pp. 819–827, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. R. Zacharski, V. A. Memoli, D. L. Ornstein, S. M. Rousseau, W. Kisiel, and B. J. Kudryk, “Tumor cell procoagulant and urokinase expression in carcinoma of the ovary,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 85, no. 15, pp. 1225–1230, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. W. J. Van Wersch and M. K. T. Tjwa, “Coagulation/fibrinolysis balance and lung cancer,” Haemostasis, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 117–123, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Milsom and J. Rak, “Tissue factor and cancer,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 36, no. 3-4, pp. 160–176, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. K. Kakkar, N. DeRuvo, V. Chinswangwatanakul, S. Tebbutt, and R. C. N. Williamson, “Extrinsic-pathway activation in cancer with high factor VIIa and tissue factor,” Lancet, vol. 346, no. 8981, pp. 1004–1005, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. B. A. Lwaleed, M. Chisholm, and J. L. Francis, “The significance of measuring monocyte tissue factor activity in patients with breast and colorectal cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 80, no. 1-2, pp. 279–285, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Shigemori, H. Wada, K. Matsumoto, H. Shiku, S. Nakamura, and H. Suzuki, “Tissue factor expression and metastatic potential of colorectal cancer,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 894–898, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. F. R. Rickles, G. A. Hair, R. A. Zeff, E. Lee, and R. D. Bona, “Tissue factor expression in human leukocytes and tumor cells,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 391–395, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. K. Kakkar, N. R. Lemoine, M. F. Scully, S. Tebbutt, and R. C. N. Williamson, “Tissue factor expression correlates with histological grade in human pancreatic cancer,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 1101–1104, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. W. P. Mielicki, “Biochemistry of cancer procoagulant,” Haemostasis, vol. 31, supplement 1, pp. 8–10, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. G. Gordon and W. P. Mielicki, “Cancer procoagulant: a factor X activator, tumor marker and growth factor from malignant tissue,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 73–86, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. Raasi, W. P. Mielicki, S. G. Gordon, and W. Korte, “Properties of proteins in cancer procoagulant preparations that are detected by anti-tissue factor antibodies,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 428, no. 2, pp. 131–135, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. S. Tallman and H. C. Kwaan, “Reassessing the hemostatic disorder associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia,” Blood, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 543–553, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Kamocka, M. Rózalski, U. Krajewska, R. Wierzbicki, and W. P. Mielicki, “Effect of cancer procoagulant (CP) on the growth and adhesion of MCF-7 cells to vitronectin in vitro,” Cancer Letters, vol. 222, no. 1, pp. 89–94, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Jozwik, S. D. Szajda, Z. Skrzydlewski, M. Jozwik, and S. Sulkowski, “The activity of cancer procoagulant in cases of uterine leiomyomas,” European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 407–410, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Kaźmierczak, K. Lewandowski, M. Z. Wojtukiewicz et al., “Cancer procoagulant in patients with adenocarcinomas,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 543–547, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. De Lucia, F. De Vita, M. Orditura et al., “Hypercoagulable state in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer: evidence for an acquired resistance to activated protein C,” Tumori, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 948–952, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Nand, S. G. Fisher, R. Salgia, and R. I. Fisher, “Hemostatic abnormalities in untreated cancer: incidence and correlation with thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1998–2003, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. Green, K. Maliekel, E. Sushko, R. Akhtar, and G. A. Soff, “Activated-protein-C resistance in cancer patients,” Haemostasis, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 112–118, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. Falanga, F. A. Ofosu, F. Delaini et al., “The hypercoagulable state in cancer patients: evidence for impaired thrombin inhibitions,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 5, supplement 1, pp. S19–S23, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. S. Adamson, J. L. Francis, R. O. Witherow, and M. E. Snell, “Coagulopathy in the prostate cancer patient: prevalence and clinical relevance,” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 100–104, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. C. G. Mitter and C. C. Zielinski, “Plasma levels of D-dimer: a crosslinked fibrin-degradation product in female breast cancer,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 259–262, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. O. Taguchi, E. C. Gabazza, H. Yasui, T. Kobayashi, M. Yoshida, and H. Kobayashi, “Prognostic significance of plasma D-dimer levels in patients with lung cancer,” Thorax, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 563–565, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. Kelly, A. Rudd, R. R. Lewis, and B. J. Hunt, “Plasma D-dimers in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 162, no. 7, pp. 747–756, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. Knowlson, S. Bacchu, S. Paneesha, A. McManus, K. Randall, and P. Rose, “Elevated D-dimers are also a marker of underlying malignancy and increased mortality in the absence of venous thromboembolism,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 818–822, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. A. D. Blann and D. A. Taberner, “A reliable marker of endothelial cell dysfunction: does it exist?” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 244–248, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. Blombäck, P. O. Hedlund, and U. Säwe, “Changes in blood coagulation and fibrinolyis in patients on different treatment regimens for prostatic cancer. Predictors for cardiovascular complications?” Thrombosis Research, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 111–121, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. W. J. Van Wersch and M. K. T. Tjwa, “Coagulation/fibrinolysis balance and lung cancer,” Haemostasis, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 117–123, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. K. Lindahl, M. C. Boffa, and U. Abildgaard, “Increased plasma thrombomodulin in cancer patients,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P.-L. Liu, J.-R. Tsai, C.-C. Chiu et al., “Decreased expression of thrombomodulin is correlated with tumor cell invasiveness and poor prognosis in nonsmall cell lung cancer,” Molecular Carcinogenesis, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 874–881, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. R. E. Banks, A. J. H. Gearing, I. K. Hemingway, D. R. Norfolk, T. J. Perren, and P. J. Selby, “Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human malignancies,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 122–124, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. J. S. Pober, “Cytokine-mediated activation of vascular endothelium,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 426–433, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. O. Kemik, A. Sumer, A. S. Kemik et al., “The relationship among acute-phase response proteins, cytokines and hormones in cachectic patients with colon cancer,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 8, article 85, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. H. F. Dvorak, “Thrombosis and cancer,” Human Pathology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 275–284, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. Ross and A. Vogel, “The platelet-derived growth factor,” Cell, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 203–210, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Ohi and C. Miki, “Tissue concentration of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor in colorectal cancer,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 413–418, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. Contrino, G. Hair, D. L. Kreutzer, and F. R. Rickles, “In situ detection of tissue factor in vascular endothelial cells: correlation with the malignant phenotype of human breast disease,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 209–215, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. R. Koomägi and M. Volm, “Tissue-factor expression in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma measured by immunohistochemistry: correlation between tissue factor and angiogenesis,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 19–22, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  105. S. A. Abdulkadir, G. F. Carvalhal, Z. Kaleem et al., “Tissue factor expression and angiogenesis in human prostate carcinoma,” Human Pathology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 443–447, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  106. S. Hippenstiel, M. Krüll, A. Ikemann, W. Risau, M. Clauss, and N. Suttorp, “VEGF induces hyperpermeability by a direct action on endothelial cells,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 274, no. 5, pp. L678–L684, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. H. M. W. Verheul, A. S. Jorna, K. Hoekman, H. J. Broxterman, M. F. B. G. Gebbink, and H. M. Pinedo, “Vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated endothelial cells promote adhesion and activation of platelets,” Blood, vol. 96, no. 13, pp. 4216–4221, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. E. Peterson, D. Zurakowski, J. E. Italiano Jr. et al., “Normal ranges of angiogenesis regulatory proteins in human platelets,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 487–493, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. G. J. Caine, G. Y. H. Lip, and A. D. Blann, “Platelet-derived VEGF, Flt-1, angiopoietin-1 and P-selectin in breast and prostate cancer: further evidence for a role of platelets in tumour angiogenesis,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 273–277, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. T. Wiesner, S. Bugl, F. Mayer, J. T. Hartmann, and H. G. Kopp, “Differential changes in platelet VEGF, Tsp, CXCL12, and CXCL4 in patients with metastatic cancer,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 141–149, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. L. Pallwein, M. Mitterberger, J. Gradl et al., “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and elastography in imaging of prostate cancer,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. P. F. Davies, M. Civelek, Y. Fang, M. A. Guerraty, and A. G. Passerini, “Endothelial heterogeneity associated with regional athero-susceptibility and adaptation to disturbed blood flow in vivo,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 265–275, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. Jadhav and K. Konstantopoulos, “Fluid shear- and time-dependent modulation of molecular interactions between PMNs and colon carcinomas,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 283, no. 4, pp. C1133–C1143, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  114. G. F. Von Tempelhoff, L. Heilmann, G. Hommel, and K. Pollow, “Impact of rheological variables in cancer,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 499–513, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. W. V. Humphreys, A. Walker, and D. Charlesworth, “Altered viscosity and yield stress in patients with abdominal malignancy: relationship to deep vein thrombosis,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 559–561, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. N. Levine, M. Gent, J. Hirsh et al., “The thrombogenic effect of anticancer drug therapy in women with stage II breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 318, pp. 404–407, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  117. L. T. Goodnough, H. Saito, A. Manni, P. K. Jones, and O. H. Pearson, “Increased incidence of thromboembolism in stage IV breast cancer patients treated with a five-drug chemotherapy regimen. A study of 159 patients,” Cancer, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 1264–1268, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  118. F. R. Rickles and M. N. Levine, “Venous thromboembolism in malignancy and malignancy in venous thromboembolism,” Haemostasis, vol. 28, supplement 3, pp. 43–49, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. M. Di Nisio, N. Ferrante, M. De Tursi et al., “Incidental venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 1049–1054, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. N. Starling, S. Rao, D. Cunningham et al., “Thromboembolism in patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer treated with anthracycline, platinum, and fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy: a report from the UK National Cancer Research Institute Upper Gastrointestinal Clinical Studies Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 3786–3793, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. N. Uaprasert, P. M. Voorhees, N. Mackman, and N. S. Key, “Venous thromboembolism in multiple myeloma: current perspectives in pathogenesis,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1790–1799, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. X. Zhou, S. Teegala, A. Huen et al., “Incidence and risk factors of venous thromboembolic events in lymphoma,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 123, no. 10, pp. 935–941, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  123. R. Kanz, T. Vukovich, R. Vormittag et al., “Thrombosis risk and survival in cancer patients with elevated C-reactive protein,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  124. G. K. Bertsias, J. E. Salmon, and D. T. Boumpas, “Therapeutic opportunities in systemic lupus erythematosus: state of the art and prospects for the new decade,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 1603–1611, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  125. C. L. Dubois, C. Pappas, A. Belmans et al., “Clinical outcome of coronary stenting after thoracic radiotherapy: a case-control study,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 678–682, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. M. Byrne, J. V. Reynolds, J. S. O'Donnell et al., “Long-term activation of the pro-coagulant response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and major cancer surgery,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. E. Hiller, “Cancer and thrombosis: managing the risks and approaches to thromboprophylaxis,” Onkologie, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 474–478, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. Gadducci, U. Baicchi, R. Marrai et al., “Pretreatment plasma levels of fibrinopeptide-A (FPA), D-dimer (DD), and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in patients with operable cervical cancer: influence of surgical-pathological stage, tumor size, histologic type, and lymph node status,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 354–358, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. R. Seitz, N. Rappe, M. Kraus et al., “Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with lung cancer: relation to tumour stage and prognosis,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 249–254, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  130. S. S. Mirshahi, E. Pujade-Lauraine, C. Soria et al., “D-dimer and CA 125 levels in patients with ovarian cancer during antineoplastic therapy: prognostic significance for the success of anti- cancer treatment,” Cancer, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 2289–2292, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  131. M. Nakanishi, K. Yagawa, S. Hayashi et al., “Plasma thrombosis-inducing activity in 120 patients with primary lung cancer,” Oncology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 297–300, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. P. McCulloch, G. D. O. Lowe, J. T. Douglas, G. D. Murray, and W. D. George, “Haemostatic abnormalities and outcome in patients with operable breast cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 950–953, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. G. H. Sack Jr., J. Levin, and W. R. Bell, “Trousseau's syndrome and other manifestations of chronic disseminated coagulopathy in patients with neoplasms: clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic features,” Medicine, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1–37, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  134. J. E. Naschitz, D. Yeshurun, and J. Abrahamson, “Arterial occlusive disease in occult cancer,” American Heart Journal, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 738–745, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. T. Uchiyama, M. Matsumoto, and N. Kobayashi, “Studies on the pathogenesis of coagulopathy in patients with arterial thromboembolism and malignancy,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 955–965, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. T. B. Grage, P. P. Vassilopoulos, and W. W. Shingleton, “Results of a prospective randomized study of hepatic artery infusion with 5-fluorouracil versus intravenous 5-fluorouracil in patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: a central oncology group study,” Surgery, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 550–555, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  137. K. T. Barnett and M. P. Malafa, “Complications of hepatic artery infusion: a review of 4580 reported cases,” International Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 147–160, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. W. Tolcher, R. M. Giusti, J. A. O'Shaughnessy, and K. H. Cowan, “Arterial thrombosis associated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) administration in breast cancer patients treated with dose-intensive chemotherapy: a report of two cases,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 188–192, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  139. K. H. Scholz, C. Herrmann, U. Tebbe, J. M. Chemnitius, U. Helmchen, and H. Kreuzer, “Myocardial infarction in young patients with Hodgkin's disease—potential pathogenic role of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and splenectomy,” Clinical Investigator, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 57–64, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. D. A. Minjarez, M. A. Delorit, and S. A. Davidson, “Spontaneous arterial thrombosis with an advanced ovarian malignancy,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 176–179, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. M. C. Bertomeu, S. Gallo, D. Lauri, M. N. Levine, F. W. Orr, and M. R. Buchanan, “Chemotherapy enhances endothelial cell reactivity to platelets,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 511–518, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. J. S. Ross, N. E. Stagliano, M. J. Donovan, R. E. Breitbart, and G. S. Ginsburg, “Atherosclerosis: a cancer of the blood vessels?” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 116, supplement, pp. S97–S107, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. G. D. O. Lowe, “Common risk factors for both arterial and venous thrombosis,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 488–495, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. G. P. Clagett, F. A. Anderson, W. Geerts et al., “Prevention of venous thromboembolism,” Chest, vol. 114, no. 5, supplement, pp. 531S–560S, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. M. Levine, J. Hirsh, M. Gent et al., “Double-blind randomised trial of very-low-dose warfarin for prevention of thromboembolism in stage IV breast cancer,” Lancet, vol. 343, no. 8902, pp. 886–889, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  146. G. Palareti, C. Legnani, A. Lee et al., “A comparison of the safety and efficacy of oral antiocoagulation for the treatment of venous thromboembolic disease in patients with or without malignancy,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 805–810, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  147. S. M. Smorenburg, R. Vink, H. M. Otten, F. Swaneveld, and H. R. Büller, “The effects of vitamin K-antagonists on survival of patients with malignancy: a systematic analysis,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1586–1587, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. G. H. Lyman, A. A. Khorana, A. Falanga et al., “American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline: recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in patients with cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 34, pp. 5490–5505, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  149. A. A. Khorana, “The NCCN clinical practice guidelines on venous thromboembolic disease: strategies for improving VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized cancer patients,” Oncologist, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1361–1370, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), “Venous thromboembolism: reducing the risk,” Guideline 92; 17-18, http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG92.
  151. S. Iodice, S. Gandini, M. Löhr, A. B. Lowenfels, and P. Maisonneuve, “Venous thromboembolic events and organ-specific occult cancers: a review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 781–788, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. S. Paneesha, A. McManus, R. Arya et al., “Frequency, demographics and risk (according to tumour type or site) of cancer-associated thrombosis among patients seen at outpatient DVT clinics,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 338–343, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  153. S. Sallah, J. Y. Wan, and N. P. Nguyen, “Venous thrombosis in patients with solid tumors: determination of frequency and characteristics,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 575–579, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. J. W. Blom, J. P. M. Vanderschoot, M. J. Oostindiër, S. Osanto, F. J. M. Van Der Meer, and F. R. Rosendaal, “Incidence of venous thrombosis in a large cohort of 66 329 cancer patients: results of a record linkage study,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 529–535, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. A. Y. Y. Lee, “The role of low-molecular-weight heparins in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 351–355, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. A. Lazo-Langer, G. D. Goss, J. N. Spaans, and M. A. Rodger, “The effect of low molecular weight heparin on cancer survival. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 5, pp. 729–737, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  157. A. Y. Y. Lee, M. N. Levine, R. I. Baker et al., “Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. A. Y.Y. Lee, F. R. Rickles, J. A. Julian et al., “Randomized comparison of low molecular weight heparin and coumarin derivatives on the survival of patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 2123–2129, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  159. A. K. Kakkar, “Antithrombotic therapy and survival in cancer patients,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 147–151, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. M. N. Levine, A. Y. Lee, and A. K. Kakkar, “From Trousseau to targeted therapy: new insights and innovations in thrombosis and cancer,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 1456–1463, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. E. E. Sproul, “Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: the frequency of association of carcinoma in the body of tail of the pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis,” American Journal of Cancer, pp. 566–585, 1938. View at Google Scholar
  162. A. Y. Y. Lee, “Management of thrombosis in cancer: primary prevention and secondary prophylaxis,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 291–302, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  163. G. Agnelli, “Venous thromboembolism and cancer: a two-way clinical association,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 117–120, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. H. T. Sørensen, L. Mellemkjær, J. H. Olsen, and J. A. Baron, “Prognosis of cancers associated with venous thromboembolism,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 25, pp. 1846–1850, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. H. T. Sørensen, L. Pedersen, L. Mellemkjær et al., “The risk of a second cancer after hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 838–841, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  166. C. Becattini, M. C. Vedovati, W. Ageno, F. Dentali, and G. Agnelli, “Incidence of arterial cardiovascular events after venous thromboembolism: a systemic review and a meta-analysis,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 8, pp. 891–897, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  167. C. Ay, R. Simanek, R. Vormittag et al., “High plasma levels of soluble P-selectin are predictive of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS),” Blood, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 2703–2708, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. Y. Hara, M. Steiner, and M. G. Baldini, “Platelets as a source of growth-promoting factor(s) for tumor cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1212–1216, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. A. A. Khorana, C. W. Francis, E. Culakova, and G. H. Lyman, “Risk factors for chemotherapy-associated venous thromboembolism in a prospective observational study,” Cancer, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 2822–2829, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. M. Di Nisio, N. Ferrante, M. De Tursi et al., “Incidental venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 1049–1054, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. A. A. Khorana, M. B. Streiff, D. Farge et al., “Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in cancer: a consensus statement of major guidelines panels and call to action,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 29, pp. 4919–4926, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. G. C. Connolly and A. A. Khorana, “Emerging risk stratification approaches to cancer-associated thrombosis: risk factors, biomarkers and a risk score,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 125, supplement 2, pp. S1–S7, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  173. R. Simanek, R. Vormittag, C. Ay et al., “High platelet count associated with venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS),” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. G. C. Connolly, A. A. Khorana, N. M. Kuderer, E. Culakova, C. W. Francis, and G. H. Lyman, “Leukocytosis, thrombosis and early mortality in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 126, pp. 113–118, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. C. Ay, D. Dunkler, C. Marosi et al., “Prediction of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 24, pp. 5377–5382, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar