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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 537101, 8 pages
Research Article

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Substance Use among University Students

1Department of Psychology, American University, Asbury Building, Washington, DC 20016-8062, USA
2Center for Natural Medicine and Prevention, Maharishi University of Management Research Institute, Maharishi Vedic City, IA 52556, USA
3Center for the Brain, Consciousness, and Cognition, 1000 North 4th Street, Fairfield, IA 52557, USA
4Maharishi University of Management Research Institute, Maharishi Vedic City, IA 52556, USA

Received 18 October 2010; Accepted 20 January 2011

Academic Editor: P. Holvoet

Copyright © 2011 David A. F. Haaga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A randomized wait-list controlled trial ( 𝑁 = 2 9 5 university students) of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program was conducted in an urban setting. Substance use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 3 months later. For smoking and illicit drug use, there were no significant differences between conditions. For alcohol use, sex X intervention condition interactions were significant; TM instruction lowered drinking rates among male but not female students. TM instruction could play a valuable role in reducing alcohol use among male university students. Limitations are noted, along with suggestions for further research.