Table 1: Mechanisms and biochemical effects of marine PUFA.

Anti-inflammatory effects
 (i) Competition with AA for Cox/lipooxygenase sites
 (ii) Increase of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids
 (iii) Reduction of TNFα, IL-1, IL-6
 (iv) Reduction of nuclear factor κB (NF- κB) activation

Vascular effects
 (i) Increased vagal tone
 (ii) Improved endothelial function
 (iii) Increase of NO
 (iv) Reduction of Hcy, VCAM-1, ELAM-1, and ICAM-1
 (v) Reduction of ET-1

Antithrombotic effects
 (i) Reduced platelet aggregation via reduction in TXA2
 (ii) Increased bleeding time (high doses)

Triglyceride-lowering effect

Antiarrhythmic effects
 (i) Increased membrane stabilization, reduced automaticity,  and increased refractory period
 (ii) Increased EPA : AA ratio in plasma membrane of cardiac  myocytes
 (iii) Reduced production of proarrhythmic eicosanoids
 (iv) Reduced agonist affinity of beta-receptors → reduced
 heart rate (HR), increased HR variability
 (v) Inhibition of the L-type calcium current
 (vi) Inhibition of fast voltage-dependent Na+ channels