Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 407035, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/407035
Review Article

Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

Division of Intensive Care Medicine, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK

Received 12 May 2011; Revised 12 June 2011; Accepted 28 June 2011

Academic Editor: Antoine Vieillard-Baron

Copyright © 2012 Ritesh Maharaj. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. H. Starling, “On the absorption of fluids from the connective tissue spaces,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 312–326, 1896. View at Google Scholar
  2. D. Lichtenstein, I. Goldstein, E. Mourgeon, P. Cluzel, P. Grenier, and J. J. Rouby, “Comparative diagnostic performances of auscultation, chest radiography, and lung ultrasonography in acute respiratory distress syndrome,” Anesthesiology, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. D. Sivak, B. J. Richmond, P. B. O'Donovan, and G. P. Borkowski, “Value of extravascular lung water measurement vs portable chest X-ray in the management of pulmonary edema,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 498–501, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Scillia, M. Delcroix, P. Lejeune et al., “Hydrostatic pulmonary edema: evaluation with thin-section CT in dogs,” Radiology, vol. 211, no. 1, pp. 161–168, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. D. Sivak, B. J. Richmond, P. B. O'Donovan, and G. P. Borkowski, “Value of extravascular lung water measurement vs portable chest X-ray in the management of pulmonary edema,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 498–501, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. O. Meade, R. J. Cook, G. H. Guyatt et al., “Interobserver variation in interpreting chest radiographs for the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 85–90, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. D. Rubenfeld, E. Caldwell, J. Granton, L. D. Hudson, and M. A. Matthay, “Interobserver variability in applying a radiographic definition for ARDS,” Chest, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 1347–1353, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. D. Snashall, S. J. Keyes, B. M. Morgan et al., “The radiographic detection of acute pulmonary oedema. A comparison of radiographic appearances, densitometry and lung water in dogs,” The British Journal of Radiology, vol. 54, no. 640, pp. 277–280, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  9. F. Michard, V. Zarka, S. Alaya, S. Sakka, and M. Klein, “Better characterization of acute lung injury/ARDS using lung water,” Chest, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 1166–1167, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. S. Martin, S. Eaton, M. Mealer, and M. Moss, “Extravascular lung water in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective cohort study,” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. R74–82, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. B. J. Groeneveld and K. H. Polderman, “Acute lung injury, overhydration or both?” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 136–137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. P. R. Eisenberg, J. R. Hansbrough, D. Anderson, and D. P. Schuster, “A prospective study of lung water measurements during patient management in an intensive care unit,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 662–668, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. G. Sakka, C. C. Rühl, U. J. Pfeiffer et al., “Assessment of cardiac preload and extravascular lung water by single transpulmonary thermodilution,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 180–187, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. A. Reuter, T. W. Felbinger, K. Moerstedt et al., “Intrathoracic blood volume index measured by thermodilution for preload monitoring after cardiac surgery,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 191–195, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Michard, A. Schachtrupp, and C. Toens, “Factors influencing the estimation of extravascular lung water by transpulmonary thermodilution in critically ill patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1243–1247, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. C. Bock and F. R. Lewis, “Clinical relevance of lung water measurement with the thermal-dye dilution technique,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 254–265, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Tagami, S. Kushimoto, Y. Yamamoto et al., “Validation of extravascular lung water measurement by single transpulmonary thermodilution: human autopsy study,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 5, p. R162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. F. Michard, “Bedside assessment of extravascular lung water by dilution methods: temptations and pitfalls,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1186–1192, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. X. Monnet, N. Anguel, D. Osman, O. Hamzaoui, C. Richard, and J. L. Teboul, “Assessing pulmonary permeability by transpulmonary thermodilution allows differentiation of hydrostatic pulmonary edema from ALI/ARDS,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 448–453, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. A. B. J. Groeneveld and J. Verheij, “Extravascular lung water to blood volume ratios as measures of permeability in sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1315–1321, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. J. Verheij, P. G. H. M. Raijmakers, A. Lingen, and A. B. J. Groeneveld, “Simple vs complex radionuclide methods of assessing capillary protein permeability for diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 162–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. A. B. J. Groeneveld, P. G. H. M. Raijmakers, G. J. J. Teule, and L. G. Thijs, “The 67Gallium pulmonary leak index in assessing the severity and course of the adult respiratory distress syndrome,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1467–1472, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. G. H. M. Raijmakers, A. B. J. Groeneveld, J. A. Rauwerda, G. J. J. Teule, and C. E. Hack, “Acute lung injury after aortic surgery: the relation between lung and leg microvascular permeability to 111indium-labelled transferrin and circulating mediators,” Thorax, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 866–871, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. G. H. M. Raijmakers, A. B. J. Groeneveld, G. J. J. Teule, and L. G. Thijs, “Diagnostic value of the gallium-67 pulmonary leak index in pulmonary edema,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1316–1322, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. B. J. Groeneveld, F. B. Plötz, and H. R. Van Genderingen, “Monitoring the permeability edema of ventilator-associated lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 250–252, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. van der Heijden and A. B. J. Groeneveld, “Extravascular lung water to blood volume ratios as measures of pulmonary capillary permeability in nonseptic critically ill patients,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. A. B. J. Groeneveld and J. Verheij, “Extravascular lung water to blood volume ratios as measures of permeability in sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1315–1321, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. E. Rivers, B. Nguyen, S. Havstad et al., “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 19, pp. 1368–1377, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. M. Lin, C. D. Huang, H. C. Lin, C. Y. Liu, C. H. Wang, and H. P. Kuo, “A modified goal-directed protocol improves clinical outcomes in intensive care unit patients with septic shock: a randomized controlled trial,” Shock, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 551–557, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. F. Michard and J. L. Teboul, “Predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU patients: a critical analysis of the evidence,” Chest, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 2000–2008, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. P. Wiedemann, A. P. Wheeler, G. R. Bernard et al., “Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 24, pp. 2564–2575, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Sakr, J. L. Vincent, and K. Reinhart, “High tidal volume and positive fluid balance are associated with worse outcome in acute lung injury,” Chest, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 3098–3108, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  33. J. P. Mitchell, D. Schuller, F. S. Calandrino, and D. P. Schuster, “Improved outcome based on fluid management in critically ill patients requiring pulmonary artery catheterization,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 990–998, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Mutoh, K. Kazumata, M. Ajiki, S. Ushikoshi, and S. Terasaka, “Goal-directed fluid management by bedside transpulmonary hemodynamic monitoring after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 3218–3224, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. A. Vieillard-Baron, J. M. Schmitt, R. Augarde et al., “Acute cor pulmonale in acute respiratory distress syndrome submitted to protective ventilation: incidence, clinical implications, and prognosis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1551–1555, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. S. Slutsky, “Mechanical ventilation. American College of Chest Physicians' Consensus Conference,” Chest, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1853–1859, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  37. G. D. Rubenfeld, “How much PEEP in acute lung injury,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 9, pp. 883–884, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. L. Gattinoni, E. Carlesso, L. Brazzi, and P. Caironi, “Positive end-expiratory pressure,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. J. C. Myers, T. E. Reilley, and C. T. Cloutier, “Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on extravascular lung water in porcine acute respiratory failure,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 52–54, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. C. Allison, P. V. Carlile, and B. A. Gray, “Thermodilution measurement of lung water,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 439–457, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. V. Carlile, D. D. Lowery, and B. A. Gray, “Effect of PEEP and type of injury on thermal-dye estimation of pulmonary edema,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 22–31, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. H. Demling, N. C. Staub, and L. H. Edmunds, “Effect of end expiratory airway pressure on accumulation of extravascular lung water,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 907–912, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. R. Cooke, J. M. Kahn, E. Caldwell et al., “Predictors of hospital mortality in a population-based cohort of patients with acute lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1412–1420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. C. R. Cooke, C. V. Shah, R. Gallop et al., “A simple clinical predictive index for objective estimates of mortality in acute lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1913–1920, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. S. G. Sakka, M. Klein, K. Reinhart, and A. Meier-Hellmann, “Prognostic value of extravascular lung water in critically III patients,” Chest, vol. 122, no. 6, pp. 2080–2086, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. V. Kuzkov, M. Y. Kirov, M. A. Sovershaev et al., “Extravascular lung water determined with single transpulmonary thermodilution correlates with the severity of sepsis-induced acute lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1647–1653, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. C. R. Phillips, M. S. Chesnutt, and S. M. Smith, “Extravascular lung water in sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: indexing with predicted body weight improves correlation with severity of illness and survival,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 69–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. T. R. Craig, M. J. Duffy, M. Shyamsundar et al., “Extravascular lung water indexed to predicted body weight is a novel predictor of intensive care unit mortality in patients with acute lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. F. T. Chung, H. C. Lin, C. H. Kuo et al., “Extravascular lung water correlates multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and mortality in sepsis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 12, article e15265, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  50. J. Zeravik, U. Borg, and U. J. Pfeiffer, “Efficacy of pressure support ventilation dependent on extravascular lung water,” Chest, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1412–1419, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Zeravik and U. J. Pfeiffer, “Efficacy of high frequency ventilation combined with volume controlled ventilation in dependency of extravascular lung water,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 568–574, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. B. J. Groeneveld and K. H. Polderman, “Acute lung injury, overhydration or both?” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 136–137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. G. S. Martin, S. Eaton, M. Mealer, and M. Moss, “Extravascular lung water in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective cohort study,” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. R74–82, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Esteban, P. Fernández-Segoviano, F. Frutos-Vivar et al., “Comparison of clinical criteria for the acute respiratory distress syndrome with autopsy findings,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 141, no. 6, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  55. O. Godje, M. Peyerl, T. Seebauer, O. Dewald, and B. Reichart, “Reproducibility of double indicator dilution measurements of intrathoracic blood volume compartments, extravascular lung water, and liver function,” Chest, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 1070–1077, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Rossi, M. Wanecek, A. Rudehill, D. Konrad, E. Weitzberg, and A. Oldner, “Comparison of a single indicator and gravimetric technique for estimation of extravascular lung water in endotoxemic pigs,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1437–1443, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. L. Oppenheimer, V. B. Elings, and F. R. Lewis, “Thermal-dye lung water measurements: effects of edema and embolization,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 504–512, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Janda, T. W. L. Scheeren, J. Bajorat et al., “The Impact of intra-aortic balloon pumping on cardiac output determination by pulmonary arterial and transpulmonary thermodilution in pigs,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 320–324, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. S. G. Sakka, C. C. Rühl, U. J. Pfeiffer et al., “Assessment of cardiac preload and extravascular lung water by single transpulmonary thermodilution,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 180–187, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus