Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 524325, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/524325
Review Article

Does Depression Impact Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Heart Failure?

1Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8L 2X2
2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8

Received 17 March 2012; Revised 29 May 2012; Accepted 3 June 2012

Academic Editor: Gregory Giamouzis

Copyright © 2012 Z. N. Sohani and Z. Samaan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Dickstein, A. Cohen-Solal, G. Filippatos et al., “ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM),” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 29, no. 19, pp. 2388–2442, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. Mosterd, A. W. Hoes, M. C. De Bruyne et al., “Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population. The Rotterdam Study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 447–455, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. F. Mureddu, N. Agabiti, V. Rizzello et al., “Prevalenceof preclinical and clinical heart failure in the elderly. Apopulation-based study in Central Italy,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 718–729, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. G. S. Bleumink, A. M. Knetsch, M. C. J. M. Sturkenboom et al., “Quantifying the heart failure epidemic: prevalence, incidence rate, lifetime risk and prognosis of heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 25, no. 18, pp. 1614–1619, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. G. F. Cleland, K. Swedberg, F. Follath et al., “The EuroHeart Failure survey programme—a survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe—part 1: patient characteristics and diagnosis,” European Heart Journal, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 442–463, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. O. P. Almeida and L. Flicker, “The mind of a failing heart: a systematic review of the association between congestive heart failure and cognitive functioning,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 290–295, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. L. C. Vogels, P. Scheltens, J. M. Schroeder-Tanka, and H. C. Weinstein, “Cognitive impairment in heart failure: a systematic review of the literature,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 440–449, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Zuccalà, C. Pedone, M. Cesari et al., “The effects of cognitive impairment on mortality among hospitalized patients with heart failure,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 97–103, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Rutledge, V. A. Reis, S. E. Linke, B. H. Greenberg, and P. J. Mills, “Depression in heart failure. A meta-analytic review of prevalence, intervention effects, and associations with clinical outcomes,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1527–1537, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Frasure-Smith, F. Lespérance, M. Habra et al., “Elevated depression symptoms predict long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 134–140, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. J. Vinkers, J. Gussekloo, M. L. Stek, R. G. J. Westendorp, and R. C. Van Der Mast, “Temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age: prospective population based study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7471, pp. 881–883, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. M. Dotson, M. A. Beydoun, and A. B. Zonderman, “Recurrent depressive symptoms and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment,” Neurology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. S. Saczynski, A. Beiser, S. Seshadri, S. Auerbach, P. A. Wolf, and R. Au, “Depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: the framingham heart study,” Neurology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Franzén, K. Blomqvist, and B. I. Saveman, “Impact of chronic heart failure on elderly persons' daily life: a validation study,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 137–145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Zuccalà, G. Onder, C. Pedone et al., “Cognitive dysfunction as a major determinant of disability in patients with heart failure: results from a multicentre survey,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 109–112, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Zuccalà, C. Cattel, E. Manes-Gravina, M. G. Di Niro, A. Cocchi, and R. Bernabei, “Left ventricular dysfunction: a clue to cognitive impairment in older patients with heart failure,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 509–512, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Taylor and D. J. Stott, “Chronic heart failure and cognitive impairment: co-existence of conditions or true association?” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Cacciatore, P. Abete, N. Ferrara et al., “Congestive heart failure and cognitive impairment in an older population,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1343–1348, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, Va, USA, 4th edition, 2004.
  20. J. E. Graham, K. Rockwood, B. L. Beattie et al., “Prevalence and severity of cognitive impairment with and without dementia in an elderly population,” Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9068, pp. 1793–1796, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. A. Bornstein, R. C. Starling, P. D. Myerowitz, and G. J. Haas, “Neuropsychological function in patients with end-stage heart failure before and after cardiac transplantation,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 260–265, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Cameron, L. Worrall-Carter, K. Page, B. Riegel, S. K. Lo, and S. Stewart, “Does cognitive impairment predict poor self-care in patients with heart failure?” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 508–515, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. K. Ghali, S. Kadakia, R. Cooper, and J. Ferlinz, “Precipitating factors leading to decompensation of heart failure. Traits among urban blacks,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 148, no. 9, pp. 2013–2016, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. H. L. Van Der Wal, T. Jaarsma, and D. J. Van Veldhuisen, “Non-compliance in patients with heart failure; How can we manage it?” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. A. Sila, “Cognitive impairment in chronic heart failure,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 74, pp. S132–S137, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Gruhn, F. S. Larsen, S. Boesgaard et al., “Cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic heart failure before and after heart transplantation,” Stroke, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2530–2533, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. C. T. F. Alves, J. Rays, R. Fráguas et al., “Localized cerebral blood flow reductions in patients with heart failure: a study using 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT,” Journal of Neuroimaging, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 150–156, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Georgiadis, M. Sievert, S. Cencetti et al., “Cerebrovascular reactivity is impaired in patients with cardiac failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 407–413, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. R. Brown, D. M. Moody, C. R. Thore, V. R. Challa, and J. A. Anstrom, “Vascular dementia in leukoaraiosis may be a consequence of capillary loss not only in the lesions, but in normal-appearing white matter and cortex as well,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 257, no. 1-2, pp. 62–66, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Schmidt, K. Petrovic, S. Ropele, C. Enzinger, and F. Fazekas, “Progression of leukoaraiosis and cognition,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2619–2625, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. S. Silbert, D. A. Scott, L. A. Evered, M. S. Lewis, and P. T. Maruff, “Preexisting cognitive impairment in patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 1023–1028, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. W. Gregg, K. Yaffe, J. A. Cauley et al., “Is diabetes associated with cognitive impairment and cognitive decline among older women?” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 174–180, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Kilander, H. Nyman, M. Boberg, L. Hansson, and H. Lithell, “Hypertension is related to cognitive impairment: a 20-year follow-up of 999 men,” Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 780–786, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Ott, M. M. B. Breteler, M. C. De Bruyne, F. Van Harskamp, D. E. Grobbee, and A. Hofman, “Atrial fibrillation and dementia in a population-based study: the Rotterdam study,” Stroke, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 316–321, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. M. Pullicino and J. Hart, “Cognitive impairment in congestive heart failure? Embolism vs hypoperfusion,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1945–1946, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Fox, K. Richardson, I. D. Maidment et al., “Anticholinergic medication use and cognitive impairment in the older population: the medical research council cognitive function and ageing study,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1477–1483, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. A. Heckman, C. J. Patterson, C. Demers, J. St Onge, I. D. Turpie, and R. S. McKelvie, “Heart failure and cognitive impairment: challenges and opportunities,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 209–218, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. A. Silver, “Depression and heart failure: an overview of what we know and don't know,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. S7–S11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. G. Koenig, “Depression in hospitalized older patients with congestive heart failure,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 29–43, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. S. Greenwald, E. Kramer-Ginsberg, K. R. R. Krishnan et al., “A controlled study of MRI signal hyperintensities in older depressed patients with and without hypertension,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1218–1225, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. J. Thomas, J. T. O'Brien, S. Davis et al., “Ischemic basis for deep white matter hyperintensities in major depression: a neuropathological study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 785–792, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. A. Butters, J. B. Young, O. Lopez et al., “Pathways linking late-life depression to persistent cognitive impairment and dementia,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 345–357, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Gazmararian, D. Baker, R. Parker, and D. G. Blazer, “A multivariate analysis of factors associated with depression: evaluating the role of health literacy as a potential contributor,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 21, pp. 3307–3314, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Garcia, M. B. Spitznagel, R. Cohen et al., “Depression is associated with cognitive dysfunction in older adults with heart failure,” Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 2011, Article ID 368324, 6 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. E. A. Crocco, K. Castro, and D. A. Loewenstein, “How late-life depression affects cognition: neural mechanisms,” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. Paelecke-Habermann, J. Pohl, and B. Leplow, “Attention and executive functions in remitted major depression patients,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 89, no. 1–3, pp. 125–135, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. B. Rosenberg, M. M. Mielke, Q. L. Xue, and M. C. Carlson, “Depressive symptoms predict incident cognitive impairment in cognitive healthy older women,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 204–211, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. M. Pullicino, V. G. Wadley, L. A. McClure et al., “Factors contributing to global cognitive impairment in heart failure: results from a population-based cohort,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 290–295, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y. I. Sheline, J. L. Price, S. N. Vaishnavi et al., “Regional white matter hyperintensity burden in automated segmentation distinguishes late-life depressed subjects from comparison subjects matched for vascular risk factors,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 524–532, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Frodl, A. Schaub, S. Banac et al., “Reduced hippocampal volume correlates with executive dysfunctioning in major depression,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 316–325, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. O. P. Almeida, G. J. Garrido, C. Beer, N. T. Lautenschlager, L. Arnolda, and L. Flicker, “Cognitive and brain changes associated with ischemic heart disease and heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 33, no. 14, pp. 1769–1776, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  52. M. A. Woo, P. M. Macey, G. C. Fonarow, M. A. Hamilton, and R. M. Harper, “Regional brain gray matter loss in heart failure,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 677–684, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. L. C. Vogels, W. M. van der Flier, B. van Harten et al., “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in patients with heart failure,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1003–1009, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. A. Vreeburg, W. J. G. Hoogendijk, J. Van Pelt et al., “Major depressive disorder and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: results from a large cohort study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 617–626, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Z. Bhagwagar, S. Hafizi, and P. J. Cowen, “Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. Schlosser, O. T. Wolf, and K. Wingenfeld, “Cognitive correlates of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in major depression,” Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 109–126, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. M. Sapolsky, “Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 925–935, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Y. I. Sheline, M. Sanghavi, M. A. Mintun, and M. H. Gado, “Depression duration but not age predicts hippocampal volume loss in medically healthy women with recurrent major depression,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 5034–5043, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. Hickie, S. Naismith, P. B. Ward et al., “Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 186, pp. 197–202, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Vythilingam, E. Vermetten, G. M. Anderson et al., “Hippocampal volume, memory, and cortisol status in major depressive disorder: effects of treatment,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 101–112, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. W. Newcomer, G. Selke, A. K. Melson et al., “Decreased memory performance in healthy humans induced by stress-level cortisol treatment,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 527–533, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Kirschbaum, O. T. Wolf, M. May, W. Wippich, and D. H. Hellhammer, “Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults,” Life Sciences, vol. 58, no. 17, pp. 1475–1483, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. G. Güder, J. Bauersachs, S. Frantz et al., “Complementary and incremental mortality risk prediction by cortisol and aldosterone in chronic heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 13, pp. 1754–1761, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Yamaji, T. Tsutamoto, C. Kawahara et al., “Serum cortisol as a useful predictor of cardiac events in patients with chronic heart failure: the impact of oxidative stress,” Circulation, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 608–615, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. N. Cohn, T. B. Levine, and M. T. Olivari, “Plasma norepinephrine as a guide to prognosis in patients with chronic congestive heart failure,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 311, no. 13, pp. 819–823, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. Venugopalan and A. K. Agarwal, “Plasma catecholamine levels parallel severity of heart failure and have prognostic value in children with dilated cardiomyopathy,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 655–658, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. S. Francis, S. R. Goldsmith, G. Pierpont, and J. N. Cohn, “Free and conjugated plasma catecholamines in patients with congestive heart failure,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 393–398, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. S. Gottlieb, M. L. Kukin, D. Ahern, and M. Packer, “Prognostic importance of atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1534–1539, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Pingitore, P. Landi, M. C. Taddei, A. Ripoli, A. L'Abbate, and G. Iervasi, “Triiodothyronine levels for risk stratification of patients with chronic heart failure,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 132–136, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. D. Ascheim and K. Hryniewicz, “Thyroid hormone metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure: the low triiodothyronine state,” Thyroid, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 511–515, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. Kirkegaard and J. Faber, “The role of thyroid hormones in depression,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. Ceresini, F. Lauretani, M. Maggio et al., “Thyroid function abnormalities and cognitive impairment in elderly people: results of the invecchiare in chianti study,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 89–93, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. G. M. Wisén, K. Ekberg, B. Wohlfart, R. Ekman, and Å. Westrin, “Plasma ANP and BNP during exercise in patients with major depressive disorder and in healthy controls,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 129, no. 1–3, pp. 371–375, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. S. Karlamangla, B. H. Singer, G. A. Greendale, and T. E. Seeman, “Increase in epinephrine excretion is associated with cognitive decline in elderly men: MacArthur studies of successful aging,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 453–460, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Pasic, W. C. Levy, and M. D. Sullivan, “Cytokines in depression and heart failure,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 181–193, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Kubota, M. Miyagishima, R. J. Alvarez et al., “Expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the failing human heart: comparison of recent-onset and end-stage congestive heart failure,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 819–824, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. T. Parissis, S. Adamopoulos, A. Rigas et al., “Comparison of circulating proinflammatory cytokines and soluble apoptosis mediators in patients with chronic heart failure with versus without symptoms of depression,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 1326–1328, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. K. Ferketich, J. P. Ferguson, and P. F. Binkley, “Depressive symptoms and inflammation among heart failure patients,” American Heart Journal, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 132–136, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. N. Trollor, E. Smith, B. T. Baune et al., “Systemic inflammation is associated with MCI and its subtypes: the Sydney memory and aging study,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 569–578, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. J. Kop and J. S. Gottdiener, “The role of immune system parameters in the relationship between depression and coronary artery disease,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. S37–S41, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. W. J. Kop, S. J. Synowski, and S. S. Gottlieb, “Depression in heart failure: biobehavioral mechanisms,” Heart Failure Clinics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 23–38, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. L. S. Redwine, P. J. Mills, S. Hong et al., “Cardiac-related hospitalization and/or death associated with immune dysregulation and symptoms of depression in heart failure patients,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. O. J. G. Schiepers, M. C. Wichers, and M. Maes, “Cytokines and major depression,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 201–217, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. W. Jiang, J. Alexander, E. Christopher et al., “Relationship of depression to increased risk of mortality and rehospitalization in patients with congestive heart failure,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 15, pp. 1849–1856, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. Gallassi, R. Di Sarro, A. Morreale, and M. Amore, “Memory impairment in patients with late-onset major depression: the effect of antidepressant therapy,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 91, no. 2-3, pp. 243–250, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. R. Schall, R. J. Petrucci, S. C. Brozena, N. C. Cavarocchi, and M. Jessup, “Cognitive function in patients with symptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy before and after cardiac transplantation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1666–1672, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. K. Rockwood, A. R. Dobbs, B. G. Rule, S. E. Howlett, and W. R. Black, “The impact of pacemaker implantation on cognitive functioning in elderly patients,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 142–146, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. H. Koide, S. Kobayashi, M. Kitani, T. Tsunematsu, and Y. Nakazawa, “Improvement of cerebral blood flow and cognitive function following pacemaker implantation in patients with bradycardia,” Gerontology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 279–285, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus