Cardiology Research and Practice / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Gender Differences in the Influence of Social Support on One-Year Changes in Functional Status in Older Patients with Heart Failure

Table 2

(a) Baseline characteristics of participants (completers and noncompleters). (b) Clinical characteristics of participants (completers and noncompleters).
(a)

WomenMen

Age
 (mean, SD)78.1 (7.0)77.8 (7.0).109
(%) (%)
Marital status
 Single/widowed/divorced108 (65.9)72 (26.6)<.001
 Married/common-law56 (34.1)199 (73.4)
Highest educational level
 Completed high school127 (77.4)210 (77.5).907
 Completed postsecondary33 (20.1)53 (19.6)
 Missing4 (2.4)8 (3.0)
Current living arrangements
 Living alone75 (45.7)53 (19.6)<.001
 Living with others88 (53.7)218 (80.4)
 Missing1 (.6)
Geographical distance from centre
 ≤50 km151 (92.1)239 (88.2).198
 >50 km13 (7.9)32 (11.8)
Annual combined income<.001
 ≤$40,000111 (67.7)144 (53.1)
 >$40,00028 (17.1)89 (38.8)
 Missing25 (15.2)38 (14.0)
Use of other resources to manage HFa.168
 No117 (71.3)176 (64.9)
 Yes47 (28.7)95 (35.1)

a Use of resources to manage HF includes pamphlets, books, and/or the Internet. a: resources include books, pamphlets, and the Internet.
(b)

WomenMen

Major criteria
 Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea37 (22.8)71 (26.6).385
 Orthopnea62 (38.0)110 (41.4).496
 Elevated jugular venous pressure69 (42.9)125 (47.3).367
 Pulmonary rales129 (79.6)208 (72.9).673
 Third heart sound10 (6.1)22 (8.3).402
 Cardiomegaly76 (46.6)139 (52.3).258
Minor criteria
 Pulmonary edema on chest radiograph76 (47.2)107 (40.4).167
 Peripheral edema88 (54.3)166 (62.2).109
 Night cough37 (23.1)57 (21.4).683
 Dyspnea on exertion124 (77.0)213 (80.4).408
 Hepatomegaly3 (1.9)9 (3.4).359
 Pleural effusion60 (36.8)104 (39.1).636
 Heart rate > 12018 (11.3)34 (12.8).646
 Wgt loss > 4.5 kg in 5 days in response to diuretics3 (1.9)10 (3.8)
Framingham Criteria meta.219
 No19 (11.6)22 (8.1)
 Yes143 (87.2)248 (91.5)
 Missing2 (1.2)1 (.4)
LV ejection fraction.006
 ≤40%54 (32.9)126 (46.5)
 >40%81 (49.4)103 (38.0)
 Missing29 (17.7)42 (15.5)
Comorbid conditionsb.068
 0–2 comorbidities72 (43.9)139 (51.3)
 >2 comorbidities78 (47.6)103 (38.0)
 Missing14 (8.5)29 (10.7)

aDiagnosis of CHF requires the simultaneous presence of at least 2 major criteria or 1 major in conjunction with 2 minor criteria which is outlined by the Framingham Criteria for congestive heart failure.
bThe functional comorbidity index is an 18-item list of diagnoses associated with functional impairment. Median number of comorbidities for both females and males was 2.0.

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