Table 4: Adjusted total incremental cost of ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and other major bleeding events (2011 USD).

Matching characteristics Ischemic stroke1  
Adjusted cost (95% CI)
Major bleeding events
ICH2  
Adjusted cost (95% CI)
Other major bleeds2  
Adjusted cost (95% CI)

Acute and annual costs
 Acute (quarter of event)$22,204 ($21,699–$22,808)$33,887 ($31,692–$36,868)$16,437 ($16,056–$16,853)
 Year 1$34,772 ($33,691–$35,870)$49,216 ($45,490–$53,431)$25,442 ($24,700–$26,190)
 Year 2$6,186 ($4,964–$7,450)$8,572 ($5,207–$12,206)$7,193 ($6,342–$8,038)
 Year 3$4,504 ($3,383–$5,617)$3,150 ($475–$5,764)$5,852 ($5,010–$6,671)

ICH: intracranial hemorrhage; CI: confidence interval.
Note: multivariate adjusted costs were estimated using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models with a gamma distribution and log link function. Year 1 costs include acute costs incurred during the quarter of the event.
1Adjusted for age group, gender, race, geographic region, year of NVAF diagnosis, warfarin use, cardiac failure, hypertension, diabetes, prior TIA, and vascular disease.
2Adjusted for age group, gender, race, geographic region, year of NVAF diagnosis, warfarin use, hypertension, abnormal renal function, abnormal liver function, and excessive alcohol use.