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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 794762, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/794762
Review Article

Depression in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

1TEI of Lamia, Lamia, Greece
2Department of Cardiology, Larissa University Hospital, P.O. Box 1425, 411 10 Larissa, Greece
3Department of Neurology, Larissa University Hospital, 411 10 Larissa, Greece
4Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Larissa University Hospital, 411 10 Larissa, Greece
5Department of Nuclear Medicine, Larissa University Hospital, 411 10 Larissa, Greece
6Department of Psychiatry, Larissa University Hospital, 411 10 Larissa, Greece
7Department of Vascular Surgery, Larissa University Hospital, 411 10 Larissa, Greece
8Nursing Department Bʼ, TEI of Athens, Athens, Greece
9Division of Cardiology, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA, USA

Received 13 March 2012; Accepted 8 May 2012

Academic Editor: George Giannakoulas

Copyright © 2012 Dimos Mastrogiannis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

It has been widely suggested that depression negatively affects patients with cardiovascular disease. There are several pathophysiological mechanisms as well as behavioral processes linking depression and cardiac events. Improvements in nursing and medical care have prolonged survival of this patient population; however, this beneficial outcome has led to increased prevalence of depression. Since mortality rates in chronic heart failure patients remain extremely high, it might be as equally important to screen for depression and there are several valid and reliable screening tools that healthcare personnel could easily employ to identify patients at greater risk. Consultation should be provided by a multidisciplinary team, consisting of cardiologists, psychiatrists, and hospital or community nurses so as to carefully plan, execute, and evaluate medical intervention and implement lifestyle changes. We aim to systematically review the existing knowledge regarding current definitions, prognostic implications, pathophysiological mechanisms, and current and future treatment options in patients with depression and cardiovascular disease, specifically those with heart failure.