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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 847172, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/847172
Review Article

Central Mechanisms of Abnormal Sympathoexcitation in Chronic Heart Failure

1Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Cardiovascular Diseases, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2Department of Advanced Cardiovascular Regulation and Therapeutics, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan

Received 18 May 2012; Accepted 24 June 2012

Academic Editor: Kazuko Masuo

Copyright © 2012 Takuya Kishi and Yoshitaka Hirooka. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

It has been recognized that the sympathetic nervous system is abnormally activated in chronic heart failure, and leads to further worsening chronic heart failure. In the treatment of chronic heart failure many clinical studies have already suggested that the inhibition of the abnormal sympathetic hyperactivity by beta blockers is beneficial. It has been classically considered that abnormal sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic heart failure is caused by the enhancement of excitatory inputs including changes in peripheral baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes and chemical mediators that control sympathetic outflow. Recently, the abnormalities in the central regulation of sympathetic nerve activity mediated by brain renin angiotensin system-oxidative stress axis and/or proinflammatory cytokines have been focused. Central renin angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines, and the interaction between them have been determined as the target of the sympathoinhibitory treatment in experimental animal models with chronic heart failure. In conclusion, we must recognize that chronic heart failure is a syndrome with an abnormal sympathoexcitation, which is caused by the abnormalities in the central regulation of sympathetic nerve activity.