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Retracted

Cardiology Research and Practice has retracted this article. The article was found to contain a substantial amount of material from previously published articles (85% of the text), mostly without citation, including the following sources:(i)M.-A. Cornier, Dabelea D., Hernandez T. L. et al., “The metabolic syndrome,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 777–822, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2008-0024 (not cited) [2], mainly in section 5, Pathophysiology, and section 6, Treatment.(ii)C. Peters, “Metabolic syndrome-a literature review,” Master of Nursing Thesis, University of Arizona, 2007. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.503.728&rep=rep1&type=pdf (not cited) [3], mainly in section 5, Pathophysiology, and section 6, Treatment.(iii)S. M. Grundy, Cleeman J. I., Daniels S. R. et al., “Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an american heart association/national heart, lung, and blood institute scientific statement,” Circulation, vol. 112, pp. 2735–2752, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.105.169404, http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/112/17/2735.full (cited as reference 20) [4], mainly in section 5, Pathophysiology, and section 6, Treatment.(iv)P. C. Deedwania, R. Gupta, “Management issues in the metabolic syndrome,” Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, vol. 54, 2006, http://www.japi.org/october2006/R-797.pdf (not cited) [5], mainly in section 6, Treatment.(v)P. L. Huang, “A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome,” Disease Models & Mechanisms, vol. 2, no. 5-6, pp. 231–237, 2009, doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/dmm.001180, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675814/ (not cited) [6], mainly in section 5, Pathophysiology.

This was raised to our attention by the publisher of Cornier et al. Hindawi regrets that this was not identified before publication. The authors said that their aim was to write a comprehensive review extracted from previously published studies on metabolic syndrome and their components, and they apologize for unintentionally not citing most of the sources, but disagree with retraction.

View the full Retraction here.

References

  1. J. Kaur, “A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome,” Cardiology Research and Practice, vol. 2014, Article ID 943162, 21 pages, 2014.
  2. M.-A. Cornier, D. Dabelea, T. L. Hernandez et al., “The metabolic syndrome,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 777–822, 2008.
  3. C. Peters, “Metabolic syndrome-a literature review,” Master of Nursing Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA, 2007, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.503.728&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  4. S. M. Grundy, J. I. Cleeman, S. R. Daniels et al., “Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 2735–2752, 2005, http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/112/17/2735.full.
  5. P. C. Deedwania and R. Gupta, “Management issues in the metabolic syndrome,” Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, vol. 54, pp. 797–810, 2006, http://www.japi.org/october2006/R-797.pdf.
  6. P. L. Huang, “A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome,” Disease Models & Mechanisms, vol. 2, no. 5-6, pp. 231–237, 2009, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675814/.
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2014, Article ID 943162, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/943162
Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

Ex-Servicemen Contributory Health Scheme (ECHS) Polyclinic, Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala District 144626, India

Received 20 November 2013; Accepted 19 January 2014; Published 11 March 2014

Academic Editor: Paul Holvoet

Copyright © 2014 Jaspinder Kaur. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome’s definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.