Table 3: Systemic effects of MetS.

RenalMicroalbuminuria, hypofiltration, hyperfiltration, glomerulomegaly, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and chronic kidney disease [99].
HepaticIncreased serum transaminase, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis [100].
SkinAcanthosis nigricans, lichen planus, systemic lupus erythematosus, burn-induced insulin resistance, psoriasis, androgenetic alopecia, skin tags, skin cancer, and acne inversa [101].
OcularNondiabetic retinopathy, age related cataract-nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular; central retinal artery occlusion, primary open angle glaucoma, oculomotor nerve palsy, and lower lid entropion [102].
SleepObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) [103].
Reproductive systemHypogonadism, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and erectile dysfunction [104].
Cardiovascular systemCoronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke [105].
CancersBreast, pancreas, and prostrate [106].