Table 1: Baseline characteristics.

Baseline characteristicsCombinedLFLGAS Non-LFLGAS value

Age, years83 ± 0.581 ± 1.283 ± 0.50.07
Male73 (53)23 (68)50 (49)0.07
Coronary artery disease91 (66)25 (74)66 (64)0.40
Previous CABG30 (22)11 (32)19 (18)0.10
Diabetes mellitus36 (26)11 (32)25 (24)0.37
Hypertension110 (80)25 (74)85 (83)0.32
Cerebrovascular disease37 (27)7 (21)30 (29)0.38
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease21 (15)5 (15)16 (16)1.00
Peripheral vascular disease37 (27)15 (44)22 (21)0.01
Pulmonary hypertension19 (14)7 (21)12 (12)0.25
Atrial fibrillation35 (26)14 (41)21 (20)0.02
Porcelain aorta16 (12)5 (15)11 (11)0.54
Creatinine (µmol/L)117 ± 5112 ± 6133 ± 30.14
STS-PROM score (%)5.6 ± 0.35.3 ± 0.306.3 ± 0.70.24
LVEF (%)55 ± 1.148 ± 2.757 ± 1.10.003
Mean aortic valve gradient (mmHg)48 ± 1.429 ± 1.255 ± 1.4<0.001
Stroke volume index (mL/m2)31 ± 0.927 ± 0.932 ± 1.10.009
Aortic valve area (cm2)0.72 ± 0.020.81 ± 0.040.69 ± 0.020.004

CABG: coronary artery bypass grafting, STS-PROM: Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality, and LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction, respectively. Results are presented as mean and standard error, or as number and percentages. denotes a significant difference between patients with low-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LFLGAS) and those with non-LFLGAS.