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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 7408129, 9 pages
Research Article

Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Permanent Atrial Fibrillation: Prevalence and Associated Factors

1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Caring Professions, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece
2Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus
3Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, University of Peloponnese, Sparta, Lakonia, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to Maria Polikandrioti

Received 28 October 2017; Accepted 11 January 2018; Published 19 February 2018

Academic Editor: David J. Chambers

Copyright © 2018 Maria Polikandrioti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important public health problem that is increasing at an alarming rate, worldwide. The most common type is permanent AF followed by the paroxysmal and persistent AF. Purpose. This study was aimed at exploring anxiety and depression and the associated factors in patients with permanent AF. Materials and Methods. The sample of the study included 170 AF patients. Data collection was performed by the method of interview using the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale” (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression and a questionnaire including patients’ characteristics. Results. 70% of the participants were men, and 32.4% were above 70 years old. Furthermore, 34.9% of the patients had high levels of anxiety, and 20.2% had high levels of depression. Anxiety levels were statistically significantly associated with gender , age , educational level , years having the disease and relations with nursing staff . Depression levels were statistically significantly associated with age , degree of information of the state of health , years having the disease and relations with medical staff . Conclusions. Patients’ characteristics are associated with anxiety and depression and need to be evaluated when treating this frequently encountered arrhythmia.