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Governments’ Policy Response to Drought in Eswatini and Lesotho: A Systematic Review of the Characteristics, Comprehensiveness, and Quality of Existing Policies to Improve Community Resilience to Drought Hazards
The southern African kingdoms of Eswatini and Lesotho experience recurrent drought-induced disasters. Policies have been enacted, but no attempt has been made to synthesise the effects on disaster resilience. This review analyses the characteristics, quality, and comprehensiveness of drought-resilience policies in Eswatini and Lesotho. We have systematically reviewed public policies that shape responses to disaster resilience published between 1 January 1980 and 30 June 2019. A combination of keywords was used to search electronic bibliographic databases, multidisciplinary databases, key organisational websites, and the first 20 pages of Google for policies that addressed disaster and/or drought resilience. Identified documents were downloaded into an EndNote database and screened for eligibility using predetermined criteria. The logic of events framework was used for quality assessment, and a metaethnographic approach was applied for data synthesis. Three broad categories of characteristics, thematic outcomes and quality, and comprehensiveness of policy documents emerged and are presented. Policy responses contributing to disaster resilience were found in n = 32 out of 13,700 documents. Three (n = 3/32) policies were statutory, and the rest were nonstatutory. Eleven (n = 11/32) were assessed to be of high quality. Policy responses relating to drought resilience focused on reducing vulnerability to recurrent disasters; promoting drought and climate change adaptation; improving agriculture and food security; safeguarding cultural heritage; and preventing gender inequality and gender-based violence as well as improving disaster governance. However, the construct of drought resilience was not strongly articulated as a major policy goal across policy documents. There is an urgent need to promote better understanding of drought resilience in order to motivate policymakers to steer away from reactive interventions and position resilience as a major national policy goal in both countries to expedite inclusive growth and safeguard development gains and the health and wellbeing of the majority of their populations who are rural-based populations.
Modified Hybrid Discriminant Analysis Methods and Their Applications in Machine Learning
This paper presents a new hybrid discriminant analysis method, and this method combines the ideas of linearity and nonlinearity to establish a two-layer discriminant model. The first layer is a linear discriminant model, which is mainly used to determine the distinguishable samples and subsample; the second layer is a nonlinear discriminant model, which is used to determine the subsample type. Numerical experiments on real data sets show that this method performs well compared to other classification algorithms, and its stability is better than the common discriminant models.
A New Simple Epidemic Discrete-Time Model Describing the Dissemination of Information with Optimal Control Strategy
In this paper, we consider a new discrete-time model that describes the spread of information by sharing in some kind of online environments such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. The impact of sharing on the information amount is investigated, which is incorporated in the considered model as a supplement compartment. We consider the possible interactions between individuals and information on the Internet, such as posts, images, and videos. The theory of control is used to show the effectiveness of our optimal control strategy in reducing the information amount and sharers and then decreases the dissemination of false information that can lead to annoying situations and unstable state in the society. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate several scenarios before and after the use of our strategy of control. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of the information amount on parameters is simulated and discussed.
Emergency Strategies of Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Single Retailer Recycling under Demand Disruptions
The uncertainty caused by emergencies will influence the normal operation of the supply chain. Considering demand disruptions, a closed-loop supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and two competing retailers based on decentralized decision-making is considered. In the supply chain, one retailer recovers end-of-life products while the other does not. Analytic results show that, when the disturbance of demand occurs, the manufacturer and retailers adjust the wholesale price and retail prices of products according to the direction of the market demand disruptions. Under demand disruptions, the retailer who participates in recovering can gain more profits, especially in the case of the positive disruption. Theoretic and pragmatic references for the emergency decision-making of closed-loop supply chain enterprises are provided.
The Impulsive Model with Pest Density and Its Change Rate Dependent Feedback Control
The idea of action threshold depends on the pest density and its change rate is more general and furthermore can produce new modelling techniques related to integrated pest management (IPM) as compared with those that appeared in earlier studies, which definitely bring challenges to analytical analysis and generate new ideas to the state control measures. Keeping this in mind, using the strategies of IPM, we develop a prey-predator system with action threshold depending on the pest density and its change rate, and study its dynamical behavior. We develop new criteria guaranteeing the existence, uniqueness, local and global stability of order-1 periodic solutions. Applying the properties of Lambert function, the Poincaré map is portrayed for the exact phase set, which is helpful to provide the sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of the interior order-1 periodic solutions and boundary order-1 periodic solution, also confirmed by numerical simulations. It is studied in detail that how and under what conditions the fixed point of Poincaré map and its stability are affected by the newly introduced action threshold. The analytical methods developed in this paper will be very beneficial to study other generalized models with state-dependent feedback control.
Game Theoretical Perspectives on Pricing Decisions in Asymmetric Competing Supply Chains
This paper investigates a dual exclusive channel model in which each manufacturer distributes its goods through a single exclusive retailer, but two goods are substitute. The decision rule between two channels is Nash game in Case 1, while it is Stackelberg game in Case 2. From manufacturer Stackelberg (MS), retailer Stackelberg (RS), and Nash game (VN) theoretic perspectives, nine game models are developed to examine the effect of product substitutability and relative channel status on pricing decisions at both horizontal competition and vertical competition levels. The analysis suggests that the type of price leadership scenarios, the level of product substitutability, and the relative channel status play a significant role in decision making. For instance, in case 1, the symmetric leadership (two manufacturers or two retailers are leaders) is always the dominant strategy and equilibrium for either two manufacturers or two retailers regardless of product substitutability and relative channel status. Nevertheless, the asymmetric leadership may lead channel members to encounter a prisoner’s dilemma if the relative channel status is small. By contrast, in Case 2, the symmetric leadership is not the unique dominant strategy for either two manufacturers or two retailers. In contrast to many earlier results, we also show that whether the first-mover and the late-mover advantages exist, depending on the level of related channel status.