Table 5: The specific indexes of joint action.

DimensionsThe measurement items

Joint action⁢JE1: the partners make, organize, and implement the product’s monthly plan and long-term planning together.
JE2: the partners forecast the product’s annual demand together.
JE3: the partners solve the business problems together.
JE4: the partners establish the conflict solution mechanism of the system together.
JE5: the partners join efforts for product research together.