Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society / 2016 / Article / Fig 4

Research Article

Solving a Closed-Loop Location-Inventory-Routing Problem with Mixed Quality Defects Returns in E-Commerce by Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

Figure 4

The fluctuation curve of optimal objective function value.
(a) ACO
(b) HACO

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.