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Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society
Volume 2017, Article ID 4580206, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4580206
Research Article

A Decentralized Partially Observable Markov Decision Model with Action Duration for Goal Recognition in Real Time Strategy Games

College of Information System and Management, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Kai Xu; nc.ude.tdun@90iakux

Received 22 March 2017; Accepted 8 June 2017; Published 16 July 2017

Academic Editor: Filippo Cacace

Copyright © 2017 Peng Jiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multiagent goal recognition is a tough yet important problem in many real time strategy games or simulation systems. Traditional modeling methods either are in great demand of detailed agents’ domain knowledge and training dataset for policy estimation or lack clear definition of action duration. To solve the above problems, we propose a novel Dec-POMDM-T model, combining the classic Dec-POMDP, an observation model for recognizer, joint goal with its termination indicator, and time duration variables for actions with action termination variables. In this paper, a model-free algorithm named cooperative colearning based on Sarsa is used. Considering that Dec-POMDM-T usually encounters multiagent goal recognition problems with different sorts of noises, partially missing data, and unknown action durations, the paper exploits the SIS PF with resampling for inference under the dynamic Bayesian network structure of Dec-POMDM-T. In experiments, a modified predator-prey scenario is adopted to study multiagent joint goal recognition problem, which is the recognition of the joint target shared among cooperative predators. Experiment results show that (a) Dec-POMDM-T works effectively in multiagent goal recognition and adapts well to dynamic changing goals within agent group; (b) Dec-POMDM-T outperforms traditional Dec-MDP-based methods in terms of precision, recall, and -measure.