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Disease Markers
Volume 19 (2004), Issue 2-3, Pages 49-68

In Vivo Measurement of Phosphorous Markers of Disease

Fernando Arias-Mendoza1 and Truman R. Brown1,2

1Hatch Center for MR Research, Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA

Received 13 April 2004; Accepted 13 April 2004

Copyright © 2004 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has been utilized to study energy, carbohydrate, and phospholipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo in live tissues non-invasively. Despite its lack of sensitivity, its application has extended to in situ human tissues and organs since proper signal localization was devised. Follow-up of phosphocreatine in neuromuscular diseases and schizophrenia and follow-up of phospholipid-related molecules in tumors are described here to demonstrate the value of 31P-MRS as an imaging technique to determine in vivo markers of disease and in the diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up of human diseases.