In Framingham cohort study, C-reactive protein was not associated with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) after adjustment for left atrial size. This study examined whether levels of plasma inflammatory markers would be significant risk factors for failed maze procedure for AF. This study enrolled 88 patients with mitral valve disease undergoing valve surgery (n = 32, sinus control group) or concomitant maze procedure for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) (n = 56, AF group). The mean follow-up in the AF group was 55.0 ± 17.5 months. The AF and sinus control groups did not differ in preoperative levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.636). In the AF group receiving maze procedure, the sinus conversion (n = 37) and non-conversion (n = 19) groups did not significantly differ in preoperative levels of interleukin-6 (p = 0.607) and tumor necrosis factor-α (p = 0.379). In multivariate analysis after adjustment for preoperative plasma inflammatory markers, independent factors associated with sinus conversion were AF duration (p =0.003), and left atrial area (p = 0.014). In conclusion, plasma inflammatory markers are not associated with sinus non-conversion by radiofrequency maze procedure.