Aim: Substantial data indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the genetic polymorphisms: polymorphic deletions of glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) and Ile105Val of the GSTP1 are associated with DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: In this cross sectional case-control study 604 unrelated Slovene subjects (Caucasians) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled: 284 patients with DR (cases) and the control group of 320 subjects with type 2 diabetes of more than 10 years’ duration who had no clinical signs of DR. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results: In our study, the deletion of the GSTM1 was found less frequent in cases with DR than in the controls (27.5% versus 44.4%; P < 0.001), whereas the deletion of GSTT1 was found significantly more often in cases than in the controls (49.3% versus 29.7%;P < 0.001). We did not find statistically significant differences in the genotype distribution in GSTP1 (Ile105Val) polymorphism between cases and controls (40.5% versus 46.0%).Conclusions: We may conclude that individuals homozygous for the deletion of GSTT1 are at an ≈ 2-fold-greater risk of DR, whereas the GSTM1 deficiency is associated with lower frequency of DR in type 2 diabetics.